Telepsychology & Internet-Based Therapy

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Telepsychology, Telehealth, & Internet-Based Therapy

Kenneth S. Pope, Ph.D., ABPP

I gathered the following resources to help therapists, counselors, and other clinicians to keep abreast of the rapidly evolving professional guidelines, research, treatments, innovations, and practices in the areas of telepsychology, telehealth, internet-based therapy.

I've divided the resources into 3 sections:

1) Links to 28 sets of professional guidelines that focus on telepsychology, online counseling, internet-based therapy, etc.

2) Citations for 73 recent (i.e., published in 2015-2016) articles

3) State Psychology Board Telepsychology Laws, Regulations, Policies, & Opinions--This third section was generously compiled by psychologist Kenneth R. Drude, and I am indebted to him for his kind offer to post it here.

PLEASE NOTE: I created this site to be fully accessible for people with disabilities; please follow this link to change text size, color, or contrast; please follow this link for other accessibility functions for those with visual, mobility, and other disabilities.

Links to 28 Sets of Professional Guidelines Focusing on Telepsychology and Internet-Based Therapy:

NOTE: Please follow this link for a more comprehensive array of professional standards and guidelines than those below.


73 Recent (2015-16) Published Articles:

Alaoui, Samir El, et al. 2015 Predictors of symptomatic change and adherence in Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for social anxiety disorder in routine psychiatric care. PLoS ONE 10(4).

American Telemedicine Association, 2016, 50 State Telemedicine Gaps Analysis: Psychologist Clinical Practice Standards & Licensure.

Andersson, G. (2016). Internet-delivered psychological treatments. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 12, 157-179.

Bashshur, R. L., Shannon, G. W., Bashshur, N., & Yellowlees, P. M. (2016). The Empirical Evidence for Telemedicine Interventions in Mental Disorders. Telemedicine and e-Health, 22(2), 87-113.

Bassilios, Bridget, et al. 2015 Characteristics of people who use telephone counseling: Findings from secondary analysis of a population-based study. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research 42(5):621-632.

Batastini, A. B., King, C. M., Morgan, R. D., & McDaniel, B. (2016). Telepsychological services with criminal justice and substance abuse clients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological services, 13(1), 20.

Berle, David, et al. 2015 Do patients prefer face-to-face or Internet-based therapy? Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 84(1):61-62.

Bertholet, Nicolas, et al. 2015 Internet-based brief intervention for young men with unhealthy alcohol use: A randomized controlled trial in a general population sample. Addiction:(in press)

Best, David, et al. 2015 Development and implementation of a structured intervention for alcohol use disorders for telephone helpline services. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 33(1):118-131.

Blanken, Irene, et al. 2015 Outcome predictors of Internet-based brief sex therapy for sexual dysfunctions in heterosexual men. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 41(5):531-543.

Blom, Kerstin, et al. 2015 Internet treatment addressing either insomnia or depression, for patients with both diagnoses: A randomized trial. Sleep: Journal of Sleep and Sleep Disorders Research 38(2):267-277.

Blom, Kerstin, et al. 2015 Internet- vs. group-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia: A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy 70:47-55.

Böttche, Maria, et al. 2015 Predictors of outcome of an internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in older adults. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice:(in press)

Brockway, Jo Ann, et al. 2016 Telephone-Delivered Problem-Solving Training After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Qualitative Analysis of Service Members' Perceptions. Rehabilitation Psychology:(in press)

Chi, Nai-Ching, and George Demiris 2015 A systematic review of telehealth tools and interventions to support family caregivers. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare 21(1):37-44.

Corruble, Emmanuelle, et al. 2016 Telephone-administered psychotherapy in combination with antidepressant medication for the acute treatment of major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders 190:6-11.

Darkins, Adam, et al. 2015 Reduced cost and mortality using home telehealth to promote self-management of complex chronic conditions: A retrospective matched cohort study of 4,999 veteran patients. Telemedicine and e-Health 21(1):70-76.

Dear, Blake F., et al. 2015 Clinical and cost-effectiveness of therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for older adults with symptoms of anxiety: A randomized controlled trial. Behavior Therapy 46(2):206-217.

Egede, Leonard E., et al. 2015 Psychotherapy for depression in older veterans via telemedicine: A randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial. The Lancet Psychiatry 2(8):693-701.

Fann, Jesse R., et al. 2015 Telephone and in-person cognitive behavioral therapy for major depression after traumatic brain injury: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Neurotrauma 32(1):45-57.

Fortney, John C., et al. 2015 Telemedicine-based collaborative care for posttraumatic stress disorder: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry 72(1):58-67.

Freedman, Sara A., et al. 2015 Early intervention for preventing posttraumatic stress disorder: An Internet-based virtual reality treatment. European Journal of Psychotraumatology 6.

Freeman, Lyn W., et al. 2015 A randomized trial comparing live and telemedicine deliveries of an imagery-based behavioral intervention for breast cancer survivors: Reducing symptoms and barriers to care. Psycho-Oncology 24(8):910-918.

Gray, Matt J., et al. 2015 Provision of evidence-based therapies to rural survivors of domestic violence and sexual assault via telehealth: Treatment outcomes and clinical training benefits. Training and Education in Professional Psychology 9(3):235-241.

Hedman, Erik, et al. 2015 Predictors in internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy and behavioral stress management for severe health anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy 64:49-55.

Herget, Sabine, et al. 2015 Psychosocial well-being of adolescents before and after a 1-year telephone-based adiposity prevention study for families. Journal of Adolescent Health 57(3):351-354.

Hoerster, Katherine D., et al. 2015 A pilot trial of telephone-based collaborative care management for PTSD among Iraq/Afghanistan War veterans. Telemedicine and e-Health 21(1):42-47.

Hoge, Charles W., and Colleen B. Rye 2015 Efficacy and challenges of in-home telepsychotherapy. The Lancet Psychiatry 2(8):668-669.

Hubley, S., Lynch, S. B., Schneck, C., Thomas, M., & Shore, J. (2016). Review of key telepsychiatry outcomes. World Journal of Psychiatry, 6(2), 269.

Imamura, Kotaro, et al. 2015 Effects of an internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention on improving work engagement and other work-related outcomes: An analysis of secondary outcomes of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 57(5):578-584.

Imamura, K., et al. 2015 Does Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) prevent major depressive episode for workers? A 12-month follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine 45(9):1907-1917.

Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A., et al. 2015 Patient perceptions of telemental health: Systematic review of direct comparisons to in-person psychotherapeutic treatments. Telemedicine and e-Health 21(8):652-660.

Jones, Emily, et al. 2015 Translating cognitive behavioral therapy for anxious youth to rural-community settings via tele-psychiatry. Community Mental Health Journal:(in press)

Joseph, Kaela M., Julia M. Hernandez, and Shaili Jain 2015 Peer support telephone outreach intervention for veterans with PTSD. Psychiatric Services 66(9):1001.

Kaldo, Viktor, et al. 2015 Guided internet cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia compared to a control treatment—A randomized trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy 71:90-100.

Karcher, Nicole R., and Nan R. Presser. (in press) Ethical and Legal Issues Addressing the Use of Mobile Health (mHealth) as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy. Ethics & Behavior.

Kok, Gemma, et al. 2015 The three-month effect of mobile Internet-based cognitive therapy on the course of depressive symptoms in remitted recurrently depressed patients: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 84(2):90-99.

Kramer, G. M., & Luxton, D. D. (2016). Telemental health for children and adolescents: An overview of legal, regulatory, and risk management issues. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology, 26(3), 198-203.

Kuester, A., Niemeyer, H., & Knaevelsrud, C. (2016). Internet-based interventions for posttraumatic stress: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clinical psychology review, 43, 1-16.

Lauckner, Carolyn, and Pamela Whitten 2015 The state and sustainability of telepsychiatry programs. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research:(in press)

Lauder, Sue, et al. 2015 A randomized head to head trial of An Internet based self-help program for bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders 171:13-21.

Lerner, Debra, et al. 2015 A randomized clinical trial of a telephone depression intervention to reduce employee presenteeism and absenteeism. Psychiatric Services 66(6):570-577.

Lindsay, Jan A., et al. 2015 Implementation of video telehealth to improve access to evidence-based psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Telemedicine and e-Health 21(6):467-473.

Lundgren, Johan, et al. 2015 Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for patients with heart failure and depressive symptoms: A proof of concept study. Patient Education and Counseling 98(8):935-942.

McCusker, Jane, et al. 2015 A randomized trial of a depression self-care toolkit with or without lay telephone coaching for primary care patients with chronic physical conditions. General Hospital Psychiatry 37(3):257-265.

Mewton, Louise, and Gavin Andrews 2015 Cognitive behaviour therapy via the internet for depression: A useful strategy to reduce suicidal ideation. Journal of Affective Disorders 170:78-84.

Morland, Leslie A., et al. 2015 Telemedicine versus in-person delivery of cognitive processing therapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder: A randomized noninferiority trial. Depression and Anxiety:(in press)

Mushtaq, Nasir, Lindsay M. Boeckman, and Laura A. Beebe 2015 Predictors of smokeless tobacco cessation among telephone quitline participants. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 48(1, Suppl 1):S54-S60.

Myers, Kathleen, et al. 2015 Effectiveness of a telehealth service delivery model for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A community-based randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 54(4):263-274.

Nelson, Eve-Lynn, and Angela Banitt Duncan 2015 Cognitive behavioral therapy using televideo. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 22(3):269-280.

Nelson, E. L., & Sharp, S. (2016). A Review of Pediatric Telemental Health. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 63(5), 913-931.

Parikh, Sagar V., and Paulina Huniewicz 2015 E-health: An overview of the uses of the Internet, social media, apps, and websites for mood disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 28(1):13-17.

Pugh, Nicole E., et al. 2015 Client experiences of guided internet cognitive behavior therapy for postpartum depression: A qualitative study. Archives of Women's Mental Health 18(2):209-219.

Rakovshik, Sarah G., et al. 2016 Is Supervision Necessary? Examining the Effects of Internet-Based CBT Training With and Without Supervision. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology:(in press)

Reese, Robert J., et al. 2015 Using telepsychology to provide a group parenting program: A preliminary evaluation of effectiveness. Psychological Services 12(3):274-282.

Roepke, Ann Marie, et al. 2015 Randomized controlled trial of SuperBetter, a smartphone-based/internet-based self-help tool to reduce depressive symptoms. Games for Health 4(3):235-246.

Rooksby, Maki, et al. 2015 Internet-assisted delivery of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for childhood anxiety: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 29:83-92.

Rozental, Alexander, et al. 2015 Negative effects of Internet interventions: A qualitative content analysis of patients' experiences with treatments delivered online. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 44(3):223-236.

Rozental, Alexander, et al. 2015 Internet-based cognitive—behavior therapy for procrastination: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 83(4):808-824.

Salmoiraghi, Alberto, and Shahid Hussain 2015 A systematic review of the use of telepsychiatry in acute settings. Journal of Psychiatric Practice 21(5):389-393.

Sansom-Daly, U. M., Wakefield, C. E., McGill, B. C., Wilson, H. L., & Patterson, P. (2016). Consensus Among International Ethical Guidelines for the Provision of Videoconferencing-Based Mental Health Treatments. JMIR mental health, 3(2), e17.

Shealy, Kristen M., et al. 2015 Delivering an evidence-based mental health treatment to underserved populations using telemedicine: The case of a trauma-affected adolescent in a rural setting. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 22(3):331-344.

Simpson, Susan, Lorenzo Guerrini, and Shirley Rochford 2015 Telepsychology in a university psychology clinic setting: A pilot project. Australian Psychologist 50(4):285-291.

Thiele, Jonathan S., Charles R. Doarn, and Jay H. Shore 2015 Locum tenens and telepsychiatry: Trends in psychiatric care. Telemedicine and e-Health 21(6):510-513.

Titov, Nickolai, et al. 2015 Clinical and cost-effectiveness of therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for older adults with symptoms of depression: A randomized controlled trial. Behavior Therapy 46(2):193-205.

Trompetter, Hester R., et al. 2015 Internet-based guided self-help intervention for chronic pain based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 38(1):66-80.

Tse, Yuet Juhn, et al. 2015 Teletherapy delivery of caregiver behavior training for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Telemedicine and e-Health 21(6):451-458.

Tulbure, Bogdan Tudor, et al. 2015 Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder in Romania: A randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE 10(5).

Valbuena, Diego, Raymond Miltenberger, and Elizabeth Solley 2015 Evaluating an Internet-based program and a behavioral coach for increasing physical activity. Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice 15(2):122-138.

Vallejo, Miguel A., et al. 2015 Internet versus face-to-face group cognitive-behavioral therapy for fibromyalgia: A randomized control trial. Journal of Psychiatric Research 68:106-113.

van den Berg, Neeltje, et al. 2015 A telephone- and text message-based telemedicine concept for patients with mental health disorders: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 84(2):82-89.

Weatherall, Ann, and Maria Stubbe 2015 Emotions in action: Telephone-mediated dispute resolution. British Journal of Social Psychology 54(2):273-290.

Williams, Alishia D., et al. 2015 Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT): A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Affective Disorders 178:131-141.

Yeung, Wing-Fai, et al. 2015 Predictors of dropout from internet-based self-help cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. Behaviour Research and Therapy 73:19-24.

State Psychology Board Telepsychology Laws/Regulations/Policies/Opinions


Kenneth P. Drude, Ph.D.

Statute and/or  Rules Adopted

California  California Telehealth Advancement Act of 2011,


Colorado State Board of Psychologist Examiners Policy 30-1 adopted 4-8-11. Teletheray Policy: Guidance Regarding Psychotherapy Through Electronic Means within the State of Colorado. At


Delaware Board of Examiners of Psychologists Regulations in CDR 24-3500, Section 18.0 Telepsychology at define telepsychology and standards for practicing telepsychology. As of January 2016 the licensing law (Title 24, Chapter 35, Section 3502 (6) defines the "practice of psychology" to include "the use of telemedicine". At


Kentucky  Statute  KRS 319.140  (2000) requires informed consent and maintaining confidentiality when using telehealth ;  Telehealth and Telepsychology Rule  201 KAR 26: 310  (2010) at


Hawaii Chapter 465, Section 465-3 (8) provides a limited exemption for psychologists employed by the Department of Defense providing telepsychological services


Idaho  Idaho Code § 54-2305-11 (2013) provides for establishing telepsychology rules

The Idaho Board of Psychologists Examiners with the Idaho Psychological Association adopted Guidelines for Electronic Transmission and Telepsychology in the State of Idaho in 2012 that are at


Kansas KAR 102-1-19 requires license in state to practice psychology regardless of person's location


Mississippi Code Ann. § 73-31-3 (d)(ii)(7) and § 73-31-14(3)  practice of psychology includes telecommunications


Montana Administrative Rule 24.189.301(1) definition of a "professional relationship" includes telecommunications  Admin Rule 24.189.607 (4)(d)(ii) includes teleconferencing for postdoctoral supervision


New Hampshire Chapter 329-B, Section 329-B:16 states that the "electronic practice of psychology" is subject to standards of care adopted by the New Hampshire Board of Mental Health Practice


North Dakota  Administrative rule 43-51-02 defines services provided to residents of the state, regardless of how they are provided or the physical location of the provider, to be regulated by North Dakota law and rules .  The North Dakota State Board of Psychologist Examiners has a Board Statement on Telepsychology in North Dakota dated October 17, 2014 at


Ohio  Ohio Administrative Code  4732-17-01 (I) Telepsychology Rules (2011)


South Carolina Code Section 40-55-50 (C) requires psychology license to provide services in the state including by telecommunications


Tennessee  Code 63-11-203(a)(2)(A)(viii) defines telepsychology

(telepsychology rules being developed & reviewed by the Tennessee Board of Examiners of Psychology)


Utah  Administrative Rule R156-61-102 (3)(b) allows "direct supervision" of a supervisee in training to receive supervision remotely "...via real time electronic methods that allow for visual and audio interactions..."


Vermont  Statute Title 26, Chapter 055 § 3018  (1999) defines psychological services via telecommunications to be regulated by Vermont law  Administrative Rule 6.4 Telepractice  includes any interjuridictional "telepractice services"


Wisconsin –  Administrative Code Psy 2.14 (2) states that "A psychologist provides psychological services in this state whenever the patient or client is located in this state, regardless of whether the psychologist is temporarily located in this state or is providing services by electronic or telephonic means from the state where the psychologist is licensed.


Policy, Statments, Opinion or Position Papers


Colorado State Board of Psychology Examiners Administrative Policy 30-1 Teletherapy Policy- Guidance Regarding Psychotherapy Through Electronic Means in the State of Colorado


Florida – case in January 2012 board approved Florida licensed psychologist to provide telepsychology from Michigan to Florida, board opinion June, 5, 2006 regarding requirement for Florida license by Ohio psychologist in Florida and telepsychology to an Ohio citizen in Ohio.


Massachusetts 2006 psychology board opinion Provision of Services Via Electronic Means (same as North Carolina psychology board opinion)


North Carolina  2005 psychology board opinion Provision of Services Via Electronic Means, (same as New York psychology board statement) at


Texas -  Telepractice Policy Statement, Newsletter of Texas State Board of Examiners of Psychologists, Fall 1999, Vol. 12, No. 2, at


Virginia   Baker (2010) states policy statement issued by Virginia Board of Counseling Guidance on Technology-Assisted Counseling and Technology-Assisted Supervision used by the Virginia Board of Psychology


West Virginia Board of Examiners of Psychology policy statement Tele-Psychology-Skype lists cautions regarding the use of "skype" for providing psychological services



Position Papers


New York -  Engaging in Telepractice position paper  at


Massachusetts – 2006 psychology board opinion regarding telepsychology (same as NC opinion)


North Carolina  Provision of Services Via Electronic Means, 2005 position paper at


Other (e.g. Case rulings, opinions, policies)

Colorado State Board of Psychology Examiners Policies § 30-1 Teletherapy Policy


Louisiana – board opinion that psychologist must be licensed in La to provide telepsychology, that the psychologist is expected to have had a face to face relationship established previously  (November 2010 Board minutes – not online)


Texas -  Telepractice Policy Statement, Newsletter of Texas State Board of Examiners of Psychologists, Fall 1999, Vol. 12, No. 2, at


Committees Looking at Telepsychology Regulation/Rules


Indiana – joint Telepsychology Task Force with state psychology association and licensing board to develop telepsychology guidelines 2012 referenced in board March 2012 newsletter at and in IPA September 12, 2012 newsletter.



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