Anti-Racism & Racism in Psychology

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Anti-Racism & Racism Psychology, Psychiatry, Counseling, Psychotherapy, & Supervision:

57 Articles & Books—Cites + Summaries

Kenneth S. Pope, Ph.D., ABPP


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I gathered the following 57 references to help psychologists, psychiatrists, psychotherapists, and others committed to anti-racist activism, research, teaching, and practice.

Although there is a massive literature on racism and anti-racism, the following resource focuses only on anti-racism and racism in psychology (as a science, discipline, and profession), psychiatry, counseling, social work, psychotherapy, & supervision.

Here are the 57 books and articles:

Ali, S. R., et al. (2005). When racism is reversed: Therapists of color speak about their experiences with racism from clients, supervisees, and supervisors. Voices of color: First-person accounts of ethnic minority therapists. Thousand Oaks, CA, US, Sage Publications, Inc: 117-133.

Abstract: "This chapter discusses situations where the therapist of color is on the receiving end of racism and addresses the following question: How do we react to and address racism directed at us by our clients, supervisors, and supervisees? Each of the seven authors describes a vignette of a powerful experience with racism, as well as how he or she responded to it and perhaps resolved it. The last part of the chapter includes suggestions for educators, supervisors, and program directors to use to plug the hole in training regarding multicultural issues."


Alleyne, A. (2009). Working therapeutically with hidden dimensions of racism. Mental health in a multi-ethnic society: A multidisciplinary handbook, 2nd ed. New York, NY, US, Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group: 161-173.

Abstract: "The impact of racism on people seeking therapy or help for mental health problems can present as a complex picture which is often misunderstood and can lead to misinterpretations, misdiagnoses and inappropriate interventions. 'Race' enters psychotherapy in ways that parallel its workings in society at large. Overt racism is easily recognised as traumatic for the people at its receiving end—and is relatively easy to address as 'trauma'. It is the shift into 'subtle' and 'institutional' forms that is a major challenge for therapists (and sufferers) to address in the consulting room. The impact of racism, whether experienced as a one-off encounter, or an ongoing experience, can prove debilitating and even damaging to the well-being of an individual. But something that is all too often overlooked and under-appreciated is the importance of the capacity for resilience in the face of racism. So, in addition to holding on to the theme of resilience, therapists faced with the challenge of addressing racism need to be equipped with a full working knowledge of the following key themes: racism as cultural trauma or 'the grinding down experience'; racism as undermining identity, or 'black identity wounding'; racism threatening relationships and leading to isolation or 'cultural shame'; and racism leading to an unhealthy attachment that allows transgenerational trauma to be kept alive, or 'the internal oppressor'. In this chapter I shall discuss these themes separately although they are clearly inter-related. They help us to understand and interpret what may come up in the consulting room during psychotherapy."


Bartoli, E. and A. Pyati (2009). "Addressing clients’ racism and racial prejudice in individual psychotherapy: Therapeutic considerations." Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training 46(2): 145-157.

Abstract: "Psychotherapists lack clear guidelines regarding how to address clients’ racist and prejudicial comments in clinical work. The authors explore the contributions of multicultural, social justice, feminist, and ethical theories to the field of psychotherapy and apply these theories to 2 clinical vignettes in which clients made racially charged statements. These clinical examples highlight the importance of using racial, in addition to traditional, theories to decipher the clinical meanings of racial comments and dynamics in clinical work. The article provides therapeutic conceptualizations regarding how to address clients’ racist and prejudicial comments in psychotherapy and elaborates on the complex meanings that might arise from engaging in racially charged discussions with clients depending on the racial composition of the therapeutic dyad. In addition to highlighting how social justice, multicultural, and feminist lenses are necessary to fully understand the meaning of clients’ comments, the argument is made that addressing clients’ racist and prejudicial comments is at once a clinical and a social justice issue."


Basham, K. (2004). "Weaving A Tapestry: Anti-Racism and The Pedagogy of Clinical Social Work Practice." Smith College Studies in Social Work 74(2): 389-314.

Abstract: "This paper aims to describe how the Smith College School for Social Work's commitment to anti-racism, affirmed in 1994, shapes the teaching of clinical social work practice. The discussion is situated in a review of the School's mission statement, the guiding teaching principles of cultural competence as developed by social work's professional organizations, and current research and clinical findings. A brief review of the literature pertaining to anti-racism in clinical practice follows. Various assumptions and myths are addressed concerning what constitutes clinical practice grounded in anti-racism. I then present a case method of teaching clinical practice based on a social constructivist view of valuing multiple theoretical lenses, an "informed not knowing" stance and the intersubjective space. Three central principles inform the teaching of cultural responsiveness. They are: (1) values, ethics and self-reflection; (2) cross-cultural knowledge and skills; and (3) empowerment and advocacy. Although a synthesis of social and psychological theories is useful in all psychotherapy, for the sake of brevity, this paper narrows the focus to racial identity development and object relations theories, in particular Winnicottian theory. Both are developmental models. They stress the importance of optimal nurturing environments and of facilitating the emergence of complex racial and psychological identities. Specific questions are posed to promote critical thinking and dialogue in the classroom. Finally, I present a clinical case of couple therapy, lasting seven months, where the clients and clinician self-identified as white, while the clinical consultant identified as African American. The role of anti-racism in this therapeutic process is addressed in the context of a case analysis based on the central principles outlined."


Beck, A. (2019). "Understanding Black and Minority Ethnic service user's experience of racism as part of the assessment, formulation and treatment of mental health problems in cognitive behaviour therapy." the Cognitive Behaviour Therapist 12.

Abstract: "Experiences of racism can be a cumulative risk factor for developing mental health problems. Cognitive Behaviour Therapists working with Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) service users should be confident in their ability to establish the necessary rapport to ask about these experiences and be able to incorporate this information into longitudinal formulations and as part of maintenance cycles. This paper sets out guidelines as to how to do this as part of a wider engagement process."


Brooks, O. (2012). "The dangerous usefulness of theorising about race and racism in psychotherapy." Psychodynamic Practice: Individuals, Groups and Organisations 18(2): 181-194.

Abstract: "This article consists of a general and a specific argument. The general argument is that theorising can be both useful and dangerous, and that our perceived advantages or successes are sometimes effective enemies of our ability to think about what we are doing and have done. The more specific argument, which is the main concern of this article, is that theorising about race and racism can be useful in psychotherapy, but that this is a dangerous usefulness that may at times be a repetition or re-enactment of racism. The author draws on examples from the literature to illustrate his argument, as well as on his own client work. As the oxymoronic or paradoxical phrase ‘dangerous usefulness’ indicates, this article does not argue that one school of or approach to psychotherapy is superior to all others because of beliefs held or theoretical resources possessed. The article does not claim that we can be naive and complacent about any psychotherapeutic notion or theory, or that, on the other hand, we may naively and complacently believe that we might simply claim to be able to do without theories, assumptions and beliefs of any kind. ‘Dangerous usefulness’ implies due caution, tensions, vigilance and paradox. This article suggests that we may have to live warily with the paradox or tension here, rather than resolve or dissipate it."


Casas, J. M. (2005). "Race and Racism: The Efforts of Counseling Psychology to Understand and Address the Issues Associated With These Terms." The Counseling Psychologist 33(4): 501-512.

Abstract: "This paper focuses on race and racism with the "race" and "racism" will be more accurately understood and, when necessary, more appropriately and selectively addressed by the field of counseling psychology. With respect to the term racism, it is hoped that the efforts of counseling psychology on behalf of social justice will reduce inaccurate and unacceptable race-driven attitudes and behaviors that comprise this "ism." To this end, the goal of this reaction is to provide a more accurate understanding of the terms "race" and "racism" and the psychosocial issues associated with these terms. To accomplish this goal, the reaction is divided into three sections. The first section critically examines the terms as they are most frequently defined, used, and/or misused in the literature. The second section presents the changing population demographics that serve to bolster the continued use of the term "race." For perspective, special attention is given to a sociopolitical phenomenon that is undermining the accuracy, validity, and generalizability of existing statistics that are reflective of and/or associated with racial identification. The third section reviews and critically discusses the respective Major Contribution articles in this issue. This section not only underscores and reacts to the racial issues discussed in the respective papers but, more importantly, highlights research, educational, and applied efforts that are or should be directed to racial issues."


Cencirulo, J., et al. (2020). "Trainee experiences of racism, sexism, heterosexism, and ableism (the “ISMs”) at a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare facility." Training and Education in Professional Psychology, published online in advance of print publication.

Abstract: "Experiences of racism, sexism, heterosexism, and ableism (the “isms”) are well documented among military populations and have been associated with numerous deleterious consequences, including decreased physical functioning and poorer mental health by those who encounter them. However, the degree to which the isms are experienced by—and impact—psychological trainees at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is yet unknown. As the nation’s largest training network for doctoral-level psychology students, the VA has the unique ability to shape both the professional and personal identities of individual psychologists, and by extension, the field of psychology writ large. As such, experiences of the isms while training—and the manner in which these experiences are encountered, reported, explored, and/or resolved in supervision—is an important area of study, due in part to the far-reaching implications these experiences may have on trainee health, wellbeing, and professional identity. From an institutional standpoint, these experiences directly impact employee recruitment and retention, and as such, should be of primary administrative concern. To assess experiences of the isms, this study utilized a mixed-methods survey consisting of focus groups (n = 16), and anonymous questionnaires (n = 55) from current and former trainees (training years 2012–2018) from an urban, West Coast VA medical center. Questionnaire results indicated widespread trainee experiences of sexism (65%), racism (54%), and heterosexism (50%) perpetuated by veterans with a corresponding fear of repercussions for voicing objections to these experiences, particularly in regards to incidents of sexism (45%). Focus group results provided rich descriptions that contextualized this fear, which included prominent themes of persistence of objectification and corresponding experiences akin to learned helplessness, the experience of cognitive/emotional double binds, unique trainee vulnerabilities, and differences in trainee experiences based on gender."


Chapman, R. T. (2006). "Internalized racism of the clinician and the treatment dynamic." Journal of Emotional Abuse 6(2-3): 219-228.

Abstract: "This article examines the transference and countertransference found in an interethnic treatment dyad where the therapist is a heterosexual Black woman and the patient is a homosexual White man. The core issues examined are racial and sexual identity, power and privilege, internalized racism, and shame. Clinical examples, including dream material, are presented in an effort to explore the unconscious aspects of identity and internalized introjects."


Cooper, A. (2010). "Institutional racism: Can psychotherapy change?" British Journal of Psychotherapy 26(4): 486-501.

Abstract: "In this paper I explore programmes of work undertaken to address institutional racism within two institutions providing psychoanalytic psychotherapy training and services. The paper suggests that training institutions of this kind may be paradoxically positioned. The same features that we might expect to facilitate reflection and change in favour of increased tolerance and diversity may act as points of organizational resistance to change. The paper draws on a range of theoretical resources that may be helpful in understanding the acute anxieties that are often mobilized when institutional racism is named and identified as something the organization has decided to tackle. The account is interwoven with various personal reflections on the experience of this work, and some autobiographical observations that may illuminate the stories presented."


Cummins, I. (2015). "Discussing race, racism and mental health: Two mental health inquiries reconsidered." International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare 8(3): 160-172.

Abstract: "The failings of “community care” in the late 1980s and early 1990s led to a number of inquiries. The purpose of this paper is to examine one of these key issues that is rarely if ever at the forefront of the inquiry process—the experiences of young black men of African-Caribbean origin within mental health services and the Criminal Justice System (CJS). Design/methodology/approach: It sets out to do this by exploring the way in which two inquiries, both from the early 1990s, approached the issues of race, racism and psychiatry. The two inquiries are the Ritchie Inquiry (1994) into the Care and Treatment of Christopher Clunis and Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the death of Orville Blackwood and a Review of the Deaths of Two Other African-Caribbean Patients (Prins, 1994). The Ritchie Inquiry was established following the murder of Jonathan Zito by Christopher Clunis. The Prins Inquiry examined the circumstances of the death of Orville Blackwood at Broadmoor Special Hospital. Findings: These two inquiries are used as contrasting case studies as a means of examining the approaches to the questions of race and racism. However, the attitudes and approaches that the inquiries took to the issue of race are startlingly different. The Prins Inquiry takes a very clear position that racism was a feature of service provision whilst the Ritchie Inquiry is much more equivocal. Originality/value: These issues remain relevant for current practice across mental health and CJS systems where young black men are still over-represented. The deaths of black men in mental health and CJS systems continue to scar these institutions and family continue to struggle for answers and justice."


Drustrup, D. (2019). "White therapists addressing racism in psychotherapy: An ethical and clinical model for practice." Ethics & Behavior, published online in advance of print publication.

Abstract: "Although racism has always been present in the therapy room, the recent political climate and flood of news stories highlighting racist narratives and behaviors has made race and racism more salient in our society. For white therapists who align with antiracism in their self-identity and practice, this may present a difficult ethical dilemma when race and racism enter the therapy office. Therapists have a duty to protect client autonomy and self-determination as much as possible. However, therapists also have a responsibility to the communities in which they work and to not willingly condone activities of others that hold prejudice, both of which are threatened with unacknowledged racism. This article addresses the issue of whether to work with racism as a clinical and ethical concern with white clients who hold racist ideas and narratives, and then offers a concise clinical model for therapists to help guide their practice."


Fernando, S. (2014). Racism in psychiatry. Critical psychiatry and mental health: Exploring the work of Suman Fernando in clinical practice. New York, NY, US, Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group: 22-32.

Abstract: "Suman Fernando has spent his career noticing the observable but overlooked facts that link race, racialization and mental health status and care experiences. In this chapter, he offers a detailed overview of race and racism by applying social and cultural theories to the practice of psychiatry."


Fernando, S. (2017). Institutional racism in psychiatry and clinical psychology: Race matters in mental health. New York, NY, Palgrave Macmillan.

Abstract: "This book examines the deep roots of racism in the mental health system. Suman Fernando weaves the histories of racial discourse and clinical practice into a narrative of power, knowledge, and black suffering in an ostensibly progressive and scientifically grounded system. Drawing on a lifetime of experience as a practicing psychiatrist, he examines how the system has shifted in response to new forms of racism which have emerged since the 1960s, highlighting the widespread pathologization of black people, the impact of Islamophobia on clinical practice after 9/11, and various struggles to reform. Engaging and accessible, this book makes a compelling case for the entrenchment of racism across all aspects of psychiatry and clinical psychology, and calls for a paradigm shift in both theory and practice."


Frosh, S. (2013). "Psychoanalysis, colonialism, racism." Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 33(3): 141-154.

Abstract: "Postcolonial theory has been ambivalent towards psychoanalysis, for good reasons. One of them is the general suspicion of psychological approaches, with their individualistic focus and general history of neglect of sociohistorical concerns. Additionally, there are specific elements of psychoanalysis’ conceptual framework that draw upon, and advance, colonialist ideology. Freud’s postulation of the “primitive” or “savage” mind, which still infects psychoanalytic thinking, is a prime example here. On the other hand, psychoanalysis’ assertion that all human subjects are inhabited by such “primitivity” goes some way to trouble developmental assumptions. In addition, psychoanalysis offers a number of tools that provide leverage on postcolonial issues—most notably, the damage done by colonialist and racist thought. This article presents some of these arguments in greater detail and also examines two specific contributions to postcolonial psychology made by psychoanalysis. These contributions address the 'colonizing gaze' and the 'racist imaginary.'"


Gordon, P. (1993). Keeping therapy white?: psychotherapy trainings and equal opportunities. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 10(1), 44-49.

Abstract: “This paper looks at the issue of equal opportunities for ethnic minorities as it relates to psychoanalytic psychotherapy trainings. It reports on a survey of trainings and equal opportunity policies and argues that all training organisations should examine their practices in this area and consider the adoption of formal policies aimed at the elimination of possible discrimination against ethnic minority candidates who are otherwise well qualified to train as psychotherapists.”


Gordon, P. (2004). "Souls in Armour: Thoughts on Psychoanalysis and Racism." British Journal of Psychotherapy 21(2): 277-294.

Abstract: "Presents thoughts on the relationship between racism and psychoanalysis and examines what psychoanalysis has had to say and not to say about racism. The tension is explored between a political understanding of racism vs a psychological, in particular, a psychoanalytic one. The author suggests that the problem with many psychoanalytic accounts is the failure to recognize that there is a social dimension to racism. The author also stresses the need to break the link between racial identity and a subordinate SES. More useful ways of looking at this subject are offered."


Guthrie, R. V. (2004). Even the rat was white: A historical view of psychology, 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Abstract: "The present edition continues within the spirit of the aims of the first edition, specifically, using nontraditional sources of documentation for the purposes of presenting, documenting, and analyzing vignettes meaningful to the study of psychology from a nontraditional perspective. Throughout Part One, Psychology and Racial Differences, new and expanded historical materials that formed scientific precursors to racial stereotypes and negative views toward Black Americans are presented. Discussions that provide early concepts of how Africans first viewed Europeans are contrasted with how Europeans first reported Africans. Expanded discussions concerning the introduction of psychometry in racial difference have been added to the chapter Psychometric Scientism. Part Two, Psychology and Psychologists, is updated with specifics of what and how psychology was taught in the pre-1960 Black colleges with emphases on philosophical directions in teaching individual differences. Discussions concerning the philosophical forces that brought about the formation of the first group of Black psychologists in 1938 to the formation of the Association of Black Psychologists in 1969 are presented. The chapter that documents the trials and tribulations of Francis Sumner, the first Black American to receive the Ph.D. degree in psychology, contains additional materials and expands on his publications. Part Three, Conclusion, advances discussions on the implication of new historical information for the field of psychology as it relates to Black America."


Hahn, K. J. (2014). Considering the power of context: Racism, sexism, and belonging in the vicarious traumatization of counselors. US, ProQuest Information & Learning. 74.

Abstract: "Recent concerns have arisen about the effects on counselors of working with trauma survivors. Vicarious traumatization may be a normal developmental process of adapting to client trauma material and may ultimately result in vicarious posttraumatic growth, or positive changes arising from vicarious trauma. Most studies have focused on individual variables or clinician coping strategies that predict vicarious traumatization. Taking a feminist approach to vicarious traumatization, this study examined the role of workplace context variables, such as sense of belonging in the workplace and support for vicarious trauma at work, on counselor vicarious traumatization and vicarious posttraumatic growth. Stratified random sampling was used to recruit counselors from domestic violence and rape crisis centers, and recruitment messages were sent to all psychology internship and postdoctoral sites in the United States which were accredited by the American Psychological Association. Surveys were completed by 234 counselors. Counselors reported sub-clinical levels of vicarious trauma symptoms (intrusions, avoidance, and hyperarousal resulting from work with trauma survivors). Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that amount and intensity of exposure to client trauma material positively predicted vicarious trauma symptoms, and sense of belonging in the workplace negatively predicted vicarious trauma symptoms. Intensity of exposure, work setting, and support for vicarious trauma at work predicted vicarious posttraumatic growth, so that counselors exposed to more graphic details of client trauma, those working in domestic violence or rape crisis centers, and counselors with more support for vicarious trauma at work reported more vicarious posttraumatic growth. The relation between amount of exposure and vicarious posttraumatic growth was moderated by intensity of exposure and by sense of belonging in the workplace. Counselors with low sense of belonging at work reported less vicarious posttraumatic growth when amount of exposure was high, whereas counselors with high sense of belonging reported more vicarious posttraumatic growth with high exposure. Results suggest that counselors’ reactions to client trauma material are normal rather than pathological, are largely due to exposure to client trauma, and can be affected by workplace context factors, especially sense of belonging in the workplace and support for vicarious trauma at work."


Hamer, F. M. (2006). "Racism as a transference state: Episodes of racial hostility in the psychoanalytic context." The Psychoanalytic Quarterly 75(1): 197-214.

Abstract: "Episodes of racial prejudice emerging in the context of a psychoanalytic therapy suggest that racism can be thought of as a regressed state of transference, characterized by polarized representations of self and other, categorical thinking, and the predominance of splitting and projection as defenses. The author suggests that activation of racial hostility in the clinical situation occurs as a result of events and processes not atypical in an analytic process. Though such states occurring outside of the analytic context are more likely made conscious in certain situations and in certain persons, the author suggests that racism can be more generally described as an ever-potential state of mind for most people living in racialized contexts."


Henwood, K. L. (1994). Resisting racism and sexism in academic psychology: A personal/political view. Feminism & psychology, 4(1), 41-62.

Abstract: “The article discusses resistance to racism and sexism within academic psychology. Its contents are linked together by the chronology of my own experiences, presenting a personal/political view. Focusing upon Social Identity Theory in particular, I point out that even critical perspectives in the social psychology of prejudice and discrimination tend to neglect black people's experiences of racism and represent an impoverished approach to the social construction of `race'. I pay special attention to the culturally pervasive problem of new racism, and to psychology's commitment to a purportedly apolitical professional identity and value-free science. Both are implicated in academic psychology's lack of a clear commitment to anti-racism, as illustrated in my account of the British Psychological Society's handling of the call for an academic boycott of apartheid South Africa. I touch on various ways of moving forward to an anti-racist psychology in respect of theory, research and the institution of psychology. One possibility is to work within a version offeminist standpoint epistemology which seeks to re-vision knowledge by starting from the multiplicity and diversity of women's experiences and conditions of our lives.”


Hoberman, J. (2012). Black and blue: The origins and consequences of medical racism. Berkeley, CA, US, University of California Press.

Abstract: "Black and Blue is the first systematic description of how doctors think about racial differences and how this kind of thinking affects the treatment of their patients. While some fine studies of medical racism have appeared, they have not examined the thought processes and behaviors of physicians in any sort of detailed way. In effect, these studies have not seen fit to enter into the physician's private sphere where specific racial fantasies and misinformation distort diagnoses and treatments. Nor have they shown much interest in identifying the specific origins of racially motivated diagnoses and treatments of black patients that have ranged across the entire spectrum of medical sub-disciplines, from cardiology to obstetrics to psychiatry. It is true that American physicians have been "major perpetrators of racialist dogma," as a monumental history of American medical racism states. Black and Blue moves beyond such general claims about racially motivated medical behaviors and describes how mainstream medicine devised racial interpretations that have been applied to every organ system of the human body."


King, K. M. and L. D. Borders (2019). "An experimental investigation of white counselors broaching race and racism." Journal of Counseling & Development 97(4): 341-351.

Abstract: "Broaching involves actively addressing culture and power in session, a counseling skill that is underused despite its promising track record. In an experimental analogue design, the authors studied potential clients’ evaluation of an initial broaching statement. Results provide evidence of the therapeutic benefits of broaching, preference for broaching that addresses the counseling relationship, and the role of positionality in evaluating counselors’ cultural responsiveness. Implications for broaching with minoritized clients are discussed."


King, M. J. (2015). What do clinicians do? Addressing white clients' racist comments in the therapy room. US, ProQuest Information & Learning. 76, published online in advance of print publication.

Abstract: "There is currently a paucity of literature in the field to provide clinicians guidance regarding best practices when clients make racist comments during individual therapy. As of this writing, very little theoretical literature and no empirical literature had been published on the topic. To address this gap in the literature, the current study used a mixed-methods design to investigate the topics. The investigation queried clinicians trained in Clinical and Counseling Psychology who had had at least three years of experience working with adult clients in individual therapy. As a starting point, the investigation focused on participants' experiences when White clients made racist comments, as White individuals have historically held more social power than People of Color. As the first of its kind, this exploratory study asked participants what they do when their White clients make racist comments in session and what factors (i.e., motivators, barriers, and other influencing factors) influence their decision-making in these situations. Data analysis was also done to identify some characteristics of the clinician that relate to the behaviors in which the clinician engages when clients make racist comments in therapy. Participants reported engaging in a range of behaviors from ignoring the comment or changing the subject to directly confronting the client's comment, labeling it racist and processing this with the client. In general, participants reported wanting to intervene with the comments more than they actually did. They indicated that the factors that influenced their behaviors included their own values regarding eradicating racism, their theoretical orientations, a desire to keep the focus on the client's presenting concern, and concerns about negative consequences that might result from confronting the comments. The information gleaned from the current study can be useful in beginning the conversation about what to do in these situations so that psychology's value of multiculturalism is upheld while also respecting clients' individual beliefs and values as well as their autonomy in therapy. It is hoped that this information will prompt additional process research in this area to establish best practices for therapeutically addressing racism and other forms of prejudice as they arise in therapy.


Lee, L. J. (2005). Taking off the mask: Breaking the silence--The art of naming racism in the therapy room. Voices of color: First-person accounts of ethnic minority therapists. Thousand Oaks, CA, US, Sage Publications, Inc: 91-115.

Abstract: "The author uses vignettes of difficult exchanges he had had with clients and colleagues to illustrate how racism can impact therapy. This chapter also explores the power of cultural context, the context of power and privilege, the double blind therapists often find themselves in--whether to speak up or remain silent about racism, and how therapists can utilize self and context to meet people of color in a more equitable place."


Lewis, G., Croft-Jeffreys, C., & David, A. (1990). Are British psychiatrists racist?. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 157(3), 410-415.

Abstract: “Out of a sample of 220 British psychiatrists, 139 completed a questionnaire regarding a case vignette of a psychotic illness. The sex and ‘race’ of the vignette were varied and the responses compared. The Afro-Caribbean case was regarded as that of an illness of shorter duration, and requiring less neuroleptics than the white case. Respondents judged the Afro-Caribbean case as potentially more violent and thought criminal proceedings were more appropriate. The female vignette was perceived as less violent, less criminal, and less likely to need neuroleptics. Cannabis psychosis and acute reactive psychosis tended to be diagnosed more often and schizophrenia less often in Afro-Caribbean cases, refuting the claim that psychiatrists tend to overdiagnose schizophrenia in this group. Such ‘race thinking’ (a form of stereotyping which is distinct from ideological racism) could lead to inappropriate management.”


Liu, T. (2018). Gendered Racism Scales for Asian American Men: Scale development and validation. US, ProQuest Information & Learning. 79.

Abstract: "This dissertation utilizes a 2-in-1 format combining two manuscripts within one dissertation. The first is a conceptual paper in which I reviewed three theoretical paradigms on Asian American men's experiences of discrimination based on the intersection of gender and race. My literature review found that the intersectionality perspective is not a unitary viewpoint but can be categorized into at least three conceptual paradigms, each with differing emphases: (a) the Cumulative Disadvantage Paradigm, (b) the Subordinate Male Target Hypothesis Paradigm, and (c) the Intersectional Fusion Paradigm. In this paper, I provided a description of these paradigms, a review of the empirical research supporting these paradigms, and an evaluation of the extent to which these paradigms are applicable to Asian American men's experience of racism. This paper has been published on Psychology of Man & Masculinity. The second part of the dissertation is an empirical manuscript. Grounded in the Intersectional Fusion Paradigm, I developed the Gendered Racism Scales for Asian American Men (GRSAM), and examined the psychometric properties. Exploratory factor analyses showed three dimensions of GRSAM: Psychological Emasculation, Perceived Undesirable Partner, and Perceived Lack of Leadership. Results from confirmatory factor analyses supported this internal structure. Results of correlation and regression analyses further provided evidence for different dimensions of construct validity and internal consistency. Both the Stress and Frequency versions of GRSAM positively predicted psychological distress and somatic symptoms above and beyond the effects of general racism experienced by Asian Americans and masculine gender role stress. Upon completion of the dissertation defense, this empirical manuscript will also be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal in psychology."


Long, K. L. (2013). Impact of aversive racism on clinical impressions. US, ProQuest Information & Learning. 73.

Abstract: "This study aimed to determine the impact of aversive racism on initial clinical judgments and on a therapist's flexibility to readjust initial impressions. In particular, the study was interested on how psychotherapists rate an African American or a Caucasian client (from a vignette) on the client's likeability, likelihood to benefit from treatment, level of pathology, and level of personal adjustment, which was done once after an initial description of the client and after supplemental information was added. Aversive racism is defined as a subtle and often unconscious form of racism in which negative racial attitudes or reactions emerge mainly when those reactions can be attributed to other factors or circumstances prominence (Dovidio, Gaertner, Kawakami & Hodson, 2002). The study hypothesized that the therapist's aversive racism would cause the therapist to initially rate African American patients more severely and would also inhibit the therapist's ability to alter clinical judgments with the addition of new information. The study consisted of 186 Caucasian clinical psychologists who rated the appropriateness of Major Depressive Disorder, Dysthymia, Borderline Personality Disorder, Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, and Other interpersonal problem on a scale from one to seven using seven items from the Diagnostic and Prognostic Rating Form. Furthermore. participants rated the client in the vignette on three attributes on a scale from one to five, including level of aggressiveness, personal initiative, and interpersonal ability. The results of this study suggested that the impact of aversive racism was not as widespread, as easily seen, or as measurable as initially hypothesized. While multiple distinct levels of aversive racism were ascertained within the population of psychologists studied, only a few variations related to these assessments of aversive racism were found. However, it is of interest that medium and low levels of racial aversive racism may have been employing compensatory strategies when dealing with African American clients. Therefore, demonstrating an ability to be constantly self-aware and guard against racist tendencies, as well as adaptation to the unexpected, may be essential for fostering optimal outcomes in the therapeutic environment."


Lowe, F. (2006). Racism as a borderline issue: The avoidance and marginalization of race in psychotherapy. Difference: An avoided topic in practice. London, England, Karnac Books: 43-60.

Abstract: "This chapter highlights the failure of psychoanalysis to face its own truths about issues of race and white racism in the selection and training of psychotherapists and in the delivery of psychotherapy. It explores possible reasons for this failure and calls for action to make psychotherapy less racially exclusive and more responsive to the needs of a multiracial and multicultural society. This paper is concerned with white racism, which is rooted in a specific period of British and European socioeconomic history."


Maher, M. J. (2012). Racism and cultural diversity: Cultivating racial harmony through counselling, group analysis and psychotherapy. London, England, Karnac Books.

Abstract: "M. J. Maher writes for all those interested in the dynamics of racism, from professionals in counselling, group analysis, and psychotherapy working in multiracial and multicultural societies to those exposed to racism who need help in dealing with the impact of their experiences. She also addresses the concept of victims becoming perpetrators if support is not given to contain the process. Herself a group analyst, the author experienced at first hand racial discrimination within the system but, rather than succumb to it, she has instead produced an enduring and proficient work that draws heavily on personal experience. Combining years of counselling skill with a natural compassion, she makes the subject of racism approachable, thus motivating all those wanting to explore the issues. For people whose experience of broken attachments crosses racial lines, this book is possibly the first to use Bowlby's Attachment Theory as a framework for understanding racism."


Maker, A. H. (2005). Post 9/11: Combating racism in the sanctity of healing--A clinical process dialogue. Voices of color: First-person accounts of ethnic minority therapists. Thousand Oaks, CA, US, Sage Publications, Inc: 155-167.

Excerpt: "The author highlights her own encounters and interventions since 9/11 as a Muslim, Pakistani, female psychologist. This chapter focuses on three primary themes: 1. how cemented stereotypes of Muslim women (i.e., specific negative gender roles, values, and cultural norms) emerge in the family therapy session; 2. the assumptions of differences between therapist and client based on race, religion, nationality, and culture; 3. the therapist's use of the self and the cultural process dialogue with clients to confront racism and discuss race and ethnicity, culture, religious beliefs, and values."


Miller, A. L., et al. (2019). "Forging diversity-science-informed guidelines for research on race and racism in psychological science." Journal of Social Issues 75(4): 1240-1261.

Excerpt: "As race and racism continue to be important subjects of research in psychology, guidelines for scholarship in this domain of inquiry are strongly needed. Drawing from the foundations of previous discussions of diversity science, we propose five principles that can help scholars conduct generative research on race and racism. Specifically, research on race and racism is strengthened when scholars: (1) are mindful of historical patterns of oppression and inequality, (2) adopt a racially diverse team science approach, (3) utilize diverse samples, (4) consider the influence of multiple identity groups on human experience, and (5) promote the translation of knowledge from the laboratory to the field. In outlining our proposed guidelines, we elaborate on why this discussion for research about race and racism is needed at this particular point of the field's history."


Miller, M. J., et al. (2018). "Practice recommendations for addressing racism: A content analysis of the counseling psychology literature." J Couns Psychol 65(6): 669-680.

Excerpt: "Although racism persists as a significant public health issue that adversely impacts the mental health of people of color (U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, 2001), there has been very little systematic guidance for mental health professionals to address racism through practice (S. Harrell, 2000). Therefore, we conducted a content analysis of the peer reviewed counseling psychology literature—the first of its kind—to provide a summary and critique of the extant practice recommendations and facilitate the development and enhancement of practice efforts aimed at addressing racism. We reviewed racism-related articles published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology, The Counseling Psychologist, and Counseling Psychology Quarterly and identified 73 relevant articles, of which 51 provided practice recommendations. Based on our review of this literature, we identified eight general categories of recommendations for addressing racism: psychoeducation, validation, self-awareness and critical consciousness, critical examination of privilege and racial attitudes, culturally responsive social support, developing positive identity, externalize/minimize self-blame, and outreach and advocacy. We found that most recommendations within each category were at the individual level with far fewer at the group and systemic level. A critique of recommendations is provided along with suggestions for developing and bolstering practice, research, and consultation efforts aimed at addressing racism."


Msebele, N. and H. Brown (2011). "Racism in the consulting room: Myth or reality?" Psychoanalytic Review 98(4): 451-492.

Abstract: "This paper explores ways in which issues of race might impact on, and/or be ignored within, the practice of psychotherapy. Racial difference, that is being white as well as being black, taps into ingrained patterns of binary thinking that create hierarchies of "otherness." This generates anxiety which leads some therapists to avoid seeing race or naming its resonance in the therapeutic alliance. The origins of this splitting may lie in the unconscious, from whence it can be subtly nudged into more conscious awareness, as a seminal paper by Andrew Curry, published in this journal, suggested some forty-five years ago. Other modalities bring these dynamics more directly into the therapeutic space by exploring the patient's familial history or their daily lived experiences of racial (dis) advantage from an explicitly empowering standpoint. But whatever route is taken, racism is not an animal that can, or should, be left sleeping in the corner of the consulting room."


Murray-García, J. L., et al. (2014). "Dialogue as skill: Training a health professions workforce that can talk about race and racism." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 84(5): 590-596.

Abstract: "Efforts in the field of multicultural education for the health professions have focused on increasing trainees’ knowledge base and awareness of other cultures, and on teaching technical communication skills in cross-cultural encounters. Yet to be adequately addressed in training are profound issues of racial bias and the often awkward challenge of cross-racial dialogue, both of which likely play some part in well-documented racial disparities in health care encounters. We seek to establish the need for the skill of dialoguing explicitly with patients, colleagues, and others about race and racism and its implications for patient well-being, for clinical practice, and for the ongoing personal and professional development of health care professionals. We present evidence establishing the need to go beyond training in interview skills that efficiently “extract” relevant cultural and clinical information from patients. This evidence includes concepts from social psychology that include implicit bias, explicit bias, and aversive racism. Aiming to connect the dots of diverse literatures, we believe health professions educators and institutional leaders can play a pivotal role in reducing racial disparities in health care encounters by actively promoting, nurturing, and participating in this dialogue, modeling its value as an indispensable skill and institutional priority."


Myers, J. L. (2012). Practicum students' experience with culture and racism in clinical settings. US, ProQuest Information & Learning. 73: 1262-1262.

Abstract: "Despite the increasing need to address the concerns of ethnic, cultural, and racial minorities in the clinical setting, few programs in counseling and clinical psychology provide their students and practitioners with the clinical training necessary to do so. The majority of psychology graduate training programs continue to minimize the importance of this deficit and its impact on minorities (D. W. Sue, 2003). To assist in the process of addressing this concern, this study sought to gain understanding of the awareness, skills, comfort, and experiences that practitioners acquire in relation to their training experiences with racial, ethnic, and cultural minority clients. A sample of 185 practicum students participated in this study. These externs represented graduate level psychology programs from different regions in the United States. The majority of the students (94%) were enrolled in a Psy.D program in Clinical Psychology with a median of 3 years in graduate school. The most common types of agencies that students worked at were community mental health centers and college counseling centers. The findings of a stepwise regression analysis indicated that students' preparation to engage in conversations with their supervisors about race/ethnicity was significantly related to supervisors' knowledge of race/ethnicity based on their experience (β = .20, p = .005); years in graduate school (β = .19, p = .01); and when the student raises the topic of race/ethnicity (β = −.17, p = .02). The current research demonstrates that gaining a thorough and well-developed knowledge of racial, cultural, and ethnic diversity is a requirement of all psychologists and graduate students working in a clinical setting to ensure that the best possible treatment is given to all clients."


Neville, H. A. and R. T. Carter (2005). "Race and Racism in Counseling Psychology Research, Training, and Practice: A Critical Review, Current Trends, and Future Directions." The Counseling Psychologist 33(4): 413-418.

Abstract: "The modern civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s radically transformed practice and research in applied psychology, at least in terms of its understanding of race and racism. Rapid changes in psychology generally and in counseling psychology specifically occurred, and during this time we witnessed the formation of organizations to attend to the professional concerns of racial and ethnic minority psychologists. The field of counseling psychology began to examine issues of race and eventually racism in training, research, and practice within this context. This article introduces this special issue on race and racism in counseling psychology. The issue represents various perspectives on more recent scholarship and future directions in counseling psychology research and practice in the post-civil rights era. The authors envision that the special issue will also serve as an initial discourse linking previous work on race and racism with current knowledge about race and psychology in the genome era. The issue is an extension of the field's leadership in advocating multicultural issues in psychology. The scholarly engagement with the literature underscores the continuing significance of race and racism not only in our society but in our profession. The authors' sophisticated theoretical and empirical consideration of racial issues in counseling psychology research, practice, and training provide a springboard for new, innovative research in this area."


Nicholas, L. J. (2001). The history of racism in professional South African psychology. 'Race', racism, knowledge production and psychology in South Africa. Hauppauge, NY, US, Nova Science Publishers: 17-25.

Abstract: "Apart for the overt acts of racism by psychologists that will be delineated in this chapter, more interesting may be the attempts by psychologists at finding a middle way or a compromise that stops short of completely repudiating the racism that characterized much of South African psychology."


Nordstrom, A. H. (2015). "The voices project: Reducing white students’ racism in introduction to psychology." Teaching of Psychology 42(1): 43-50.

Abstract: "This study examined the impact of an assignment involving intergroup contact (The Voices Project [TVP]) on student racism toward Muslims, African Americans, Asians, and Hispanics in Introduction to Psychology. TVP students interviewed members from racial groups and wrote autobiographical memoirs of their lives. A faculty-writing team integrated the stories into a staged reading program and presented to the class and campus. Students completed attitude surveys during the first and last weeks of a 15-week semester as well as 1 year later. TVP class showed significant reductions in prejudice toward racial groups across the semester and improvements remained 1 year later. Compared to a control class, TVP class demonstrated significantly greater attitude changes toward Muslims, Hispanics, and acknowledgment of White privilege.


Patel, N. (2012). Difference and power in supervision: The case of culture and racism. Supervision and clinical psychology: Theory, practice and perspectives, 2nd ed. New York, NY, US, Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group: 96-117.

Abstract: "This chapter has attempted to explore some key issues and some of the ways of improving supervisory practice in clinical psychology to enable us to develop greater understanding, confidence and competence in addressing power, cultural differences and racism. Whilst some implications for supervisors and supervisees have been outlined, the overall implications for the profession also require attention, although these will be mentioned only briefly here. Key implications include the responsibilities for the professional body in examining its own structure, policies and procedures and its own organizational processes that reinforce a Eurocentric bias in every aspect of clinical psychology. Clinical psychology training programs also need to review and revise the content and methods of training, to examine their own biases and institutional racism and to pay particular attention to the potential abuses within supervision, clinical, academic and research supervision in relation to cultural and racial oppression. Finally, and inevitably, the content and nature of training for supervisors and the monitoring of supervisors and supervision with respect to issues of culture and racism remain important challenges for the profession."


Pendry, N. (2012). "Race, racism and systemic supervision." Journal of Family Therapy 34(4): 403-418.

Abstract: "The idea of ‘race’ and the social reality of racism have gained increasing attention in family and systemic psychotherapy. This article seeks to extend this attention by focusing upon the influence of race and racism in the supervision of family and systemic psychotherapy. The way in which the idea of race might be conceptualized is discussed, before looking at how race and racism have been addressed in the field. Attention is then turned to systemic supervision, focusing upon the ideas generated about how supervisors might position themselves in relation to these issues, the implications this might have for the supervisory relationship and the relationships between supervisees and client families. It is proposed that by virtue of the supervisor's position of power over the supervisee, it is the supervisor's responsibility to initiate conversations about race and racism. A proposal for this task is outlined, which recognizes that these conversations are ongoing. A concluding assertion is made that such conversations should form part of the evaluative process for trainee supervisors."


Pieterse, A. L., et al. (2016). "Development and initial validation of the anti-racism behavioral inventory (ARBI)." Counselling Psychology Quarterly 29(4): 356-381.

Abstract: "This investigation reports on the development and initial validation of the anti-racism behavioral inventory, a measure designed to assess anti-racism awareness and behavior among students in counseling and counseling psychology programs within the United States (US). Data from 513 participants were collected over three related studies. Factor analyses suggested that the 21-item scale was best represented as a bifactor model with one general anti-racism behavior factor and three domain-specific factors, namely individual advocacy, awareness of racism, and institutional advocacy. Additional validity was supported through inverse associations with measures of symbolic racism and color-blind racial attitudes, as well as positive associations with scores on the Quick Discrimination Index. Potential utility of the measure and future directions for ongoing development is discussed."


Prescott, B. (2019). Anti-racist identity development in White clinical psychology graduate students. US, ProQuest Information & Learning. 80.

Abstract: "This study sought to explore anti-racist White identity development in psychology graduate students. Specifically, the purpose of this dissertation was to identify particular challenges associated with anti-racist White identity development and the processes that facilitate further development, despite these challenges. The research for this study was conducted qualitatively. A semi-structured interview guide (see Appendix B) was created based on identified areas related to anti-racist White identity development in clinical psychology training and clinical work. The qualitative analysis of the interviews was conducted using Interpretive Phenomenological analysis and included both vertical, case by case, and horizontal, across cases, analysis. Three "super-ordinate," or overarching themes, with multiple themes under each, were discovered. Specifically, the themes fell under overarching themes of "Whiteness," "Difficulties in Addressing White Identity," and "Growth." Themes from this study that relate to previous literature were discussed and it was noted when themes emerged that were not observed in the literature reviewed. Implications of these findings were discussed and suggestions on how the results of this study could be used to inform educational and clinical practices, such as implementing groups and mentorship programs in training institutions, were provided. Limitations in sample size, participant self-selection, participant diversity and subjectivity in abstract data analysis were discussed. Additionally, indications for future research on anti-racist White Identity were discussed, with an emphasis on larger, more inclusive sample size and studies involving pre-test and post-test designs."


Richards, G. (2012). 'Race', racism and psychology: Towards a reflexive history, 2nd ed. New York, NY, US, Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Abstract: "This book offers a comprehensive overview of the ways in which Psychology has engaged with 'race' and racism issues since the late 19th century. It emphasises the complexities and convolutions of the story and attempts to elucidate the subtleties and occasional paradoxes that have arisen as a result. This important and controversial book has proved to be a vital text for readers, as a point of departure for more in-depth inquiries into specific topics, and as a handy reference text. The additional up-to-date material included in this new edition makes the book an even more valuable resource to those working and studying psychology, as well as to anyone concerned with the 'race' issue either professionally or personally."


Ridley, C. R. (2005). Overcoming unintentional racism in counseling and therapy: A practitioner's guide to intentional intervention, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA, US, Sage Publications, Inc.

Abstract: "Any counselor or therapist, regardless of race, background, or motive, can engage in unintentional acts of racism. In so doing, they may inadvertently sabotage their own efforts and perpetuate the very problems they seek to overcome. Overcoming Unintentional Racism in Counseling and Therapy, Second Edition examines the dynamics and effects of racism in counseling with an emphasis on the insidiousness of unintentional racism. Workable solutions and practical alternatives are proposed with numerous supporting clinical examples included to help counselors and psychotherapists gain new insights into their operational practices, and modify any behaviors that may interfere with a helpful intervention. The Second Edition also provides a new section on the policies and practices of agencies and other institutions in the mental health system that unintentionally results in service disparities. Macrosystem and micro-system interventions are proposed to overcome these disparities. Key features of this text include: discussion on unintentional racism in counseling and therapy; balance of theory and practice; problem identification and solutions. The text is suited as a supplemental text for theoretical courses in counseling, counseling techniques, practicum, multicultural counseling, and in professional seminars."


Ronay-Jinich, D. (2010). White therapists addressing racism with White clients: A theoretical analysis and integrative treatment model. US, ProQuest Information & Learning. 70: 5183-5183.

Abstract: "This dissertation addresses a major gap in the literature and in clinical training regarding how White therapists can approach racist material brought to treatment by White clients. This can be done in a culturally sensitive way that recognizes that racism is psychologically detrimental to both its perpetrators and its victims. Racism is reviewed from psychoanalytic, systems/postmodern, and cognitive behavioral perspectives, both theoretically and in terms of treatment recommendations. Furthermore, White racial identity is examined in an effort to make it more visible and to encourage White clinicians to become culturally sensitive by first exploring their own ethnic identity and then doing so with White clients. In addition, the need for White clinicians to explore their own cultural identity and to do so within a context where other White clinicians can support them is emphasized. Finally, an integrative treatment model is provided which addresses theoretical gaps and builds on theoretical strengths to develop a more comprehensive and effective treatment of racism. This thesis is an invitation and guide for White therapists to carry out culturally accountable work with White clients, using existing theoretical models as a starting point. As is shown through the extensive literature review, it is possible to integrate one's theoretical orientation with multiculturalism to maximize the treatment of racism. The premise that all clients deserve to have culturally sensitive and accountable clinicians is integrated throughout the thesis. Ultimately, this dissertation looks at therapist's ability to stop colluding with racism as a way in which our leadership as agents of pro-social change, advocacy, and social justice can be maximized. By having more of an understanding of how racism operates in a therapeutic dyad, clinicians can understand how it systemically infiltrates a field in which practitioners are well-meaning, caring, and compassionate people."


Sashidharan, S. P. (2001). "Institutional racism in British psychiatry." Psychiatric Bulletin 25(7): 244-247.

Abstract: "Discusses racism in British psychiatry, examining why psychiatric practice in Great Britain continues to discriminate against Irish, Black, and Asian people. The author also examines how psychiatry as a profession responds to the charge of institutional racism, which is increasingly accepted as a major problem within British psychiatry. The author argues that the roots of racism within psychiatric care can be traced to the conceptual and theoretical framework of what constitutes modern psychiatry. The nature of psychiatric practices and procedures that arise from such a knowledge base and professional sanctioned activities around social control have become fundamental to what constitutes mental health activities. It is unlikely that changes will come about as a results of changes in individual practices or through professional training on cultural or race awareness. The author suggests that professionals much address the cultural and historical specificity of psychiatry, in particular the theoretical underpinning of diagnosis and classification. The related ideology around causality, vulnerability, and the emphasis on racial as against social, material, or cultural factors also demand reappraisal, given their cultural and historical roots."


Sawyer, J., & Senn, D. J. (1973). Institutional Racism and the American Psychological Association 1. Journal of Social Issues, 29(1), 67-79.

Abstract: “Institutional racism—institutional practice that perpetuates racial inequality—does not require individual prejudice or institutional intent, but is a by-product of business as usual. Psychologists for Social Action showed how APA practices institutional racism by condoning employment practices of Lancaster Press, APA's major printer. In May 1969, the Press employed one black person (“wash-up man”) out of 300 employees, though Lancaster's 63,000 population included over 15% blacks and Puerto Ricans. Both the Press and the APA Central Office attributed this to low educational level. The authors met with representatives of Lancaster minority communities and together with them influenced the Press to hire 9 black persons out of 18 new employees between October 1, 1969 and September 30, 1970. A May 1973 postscript documents APA's continued hesitancy to influence its suppliers toward equal employment practices.”


Senn, D. J., & Sawyer, J. (1971). Institutional racism: A problem for psychology?. American Psychologist, 26(7), 671-674.

Abstract: “Discusses whether the American Psychological Association (APA) can be involved, through its normal institutional activity, in the perpetuation of racial inequality. A case study explores APA's relationship with its printer, which had 1 Black employee, and exemplifies institutional racism at APA, despite the absence of an intent to discriminate. The printer was subsequently persuaded by the Psychologists for Social Action to increase its employment of minorities.”


Shin, R. Q., et al. (2016). "Is Allison more likely than Lakisha to receive a callback from counseling professionals? A racism audit study." The Counseling Psychologist 44(8): 1187-1211.

Abstract: "Using an audit study, we examined racially biased callback responses in the mental health field by leaving voicemails soliciting services with practicing counselors and psychologists (N = 371). To manipulate perceived race, an actor identified herself with either a stereotypically Black- or non–Latino White-sounding name. Although the difference in callback rate between the two names was not significant, the difference in voice messages from therapists that either promoted potential services or impeded services was significant. The caller with the stereotypically White-sounding name received voice messages that promoted the potential for services at a 12% higher rate than the caller with the stereotypically Black-sounding name. Limitations, future directions for research, and counseling implications are discussed."


Singh, S. P. (2007). "Institutional racism in psychiatry: Lessons from inquiries." Psychiatric Bulletin 31(10): 363-365.

Abstract: "The President of the Royal College of Psychiatrists recently reiterated the College's determination to tackle institutional racism in psychiatry, as defined in the MacPherson Report (MacPherson, 1999). This reaction was prompted by a paper suggesting that racism was perhaps not the only explanation for ethnic differences in rates of psychosis and detention under the Mental Health Act 1983 (Singh & Burns, 2006). The MacPherson Report defines institutional racism as "the collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin. It can be seen or detected in processes, attitudes and behaviour which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness, and racist stereotyping which disadvantage minority ethnic people". How would similar failures manifest in mental health services? A person from a minority ethnic group who has a serious mental illness is not given an adequate diagnosis, not provided with a coherent treatment plan, not offered appropriate treatment and does not have their needs met. Such failures occur repeatedly over many encounters with the services, and several clinicians individually and collectively contribute to the poor decision-making. These experiences are replicated nationally for patients from minority ethnic groups."


Stevens, G. (2003). "Academic representations of 'race' and racism in psychology: Knowledge production, historical context and dialectics in transitional South Africa." International Journal of Intercultural Relations 27(2): 189-207.

Abstract: "Reviews thematic patterns and trends pertaining to constructions of 'race' and racism within South African psychology's formal discourse from 1990 to 2000. It notes that clear differences emerge temporally with shifts in the socio-historical terrain of South African society, and it is the author's contention that these manifestations relate directly to ideological, political, social and economic conditions prevalent in South Africa and within the global context. Political transformation and its associated perceived threats to economic, social and cultural integrity; the impact of globalization and neo-liberal ideologies; and the contested institutional dynamics underpinning 'race' and racism in postapartheid South Africa are all explored as potential factors contributing to these academic discourses within South African psychology. The study is a thematic analysis of the South African Journal of Psychology during this period and highlights the shifting ontological, epistemological and methodological frameworks as they relate to the study of 'race' and racism. The paper argues for a revisiting of critical understandings of 'race' and racism within the framework of modernity and cautions against the potential contradictions within postmodernist understandings of these phenomena."


Sue, D. W. (2005). "Racism and the Conspiracy of Silence: Presidential Address." The Counseling Psychologist 33(1): 100-114.

Abstract: "Presents the author's presidential address to the Society of Counseling Psychology, Division 17 of the American Psychological Association. The author discusses the social injustice of racism and why such a topic is relevant to counseling psychology. The following topics are discussed: (1) Three manifestations of racism; (2) Defining racism as pathology or a mental disorder is problematic; (3) Racism is more normative than we like to believe; (4) It is not the white supremacist but the ordinary citizen who perpetrates the greatest harm to people of color; (5) Racism harms white folks as well; and (6) Acknowledging our own racism is not enough."


Tinsley-Jones, H. A. (2001). "Racism in out midst: Listening to psychologists of color." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 32(6): 573-580.

Abstract: "How is racism covertly or overtly active in psychological theory, practice, and policy? The field of psychology has given little attention to addressing this question. Using a qualitative interviewing approach, this study assessed racism in psychology from the unique perspectives of 8 psychologists of color. An analysis of in-depth responses to 3 target questions suggested that although participants believed that the field has made gains, negative appraisals very clearly predominated, and covert acts of racism were cited, providing additional evidence that racism is in psychology's midst. Suggestions for addressing racism within psychology are made."


Wade, J. C. (1993). Institutional racism: An analysis of the mental health system. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63(4), 536-544.

Abstract: “Institutional racism is defined and its conceptual application to the institution of psychiatry and the mental health system is described. Data on changes in the patient population and the provision and utilization of mental health services since deinstitutionalization are examined. Mental health policy and diagnostic and treatment issues are identified as areas in which institutional racism affects minority groups.”


Wong, L. M. (1994). Di (s)-secting and Dis (s)-closingWhiteness': Two Tales about Psychology. Feminism & Psychology, 4(1), 133-153.

Abstract: “`Whiteness' is di(s)-sected and dis(s)-closed to reveal its privileged position within psychological texts. This allows me to discuss the three ways in which `whiteness' has surfaced. First, `whiteness' is absent. Second, `whiteness' is displaced by synonyms that shift its anxieties on the `other'. And third, `whiteness' is discussed as the predominant epistemological backdrop of psychological texts that e-race, make invisible and token the presence of racial minorities. I will use two instances of psychological practice-e-racing theory and the porno-raced method-to discuss how `whiteness' has manipulated racial minorities to inform, test and construct its own meanings.”


Zayas, L. H. (2001). "Incorporating struggles with racism and ethnic identity in therapy with adolescents." Clinical Social Work Journal 29(4): 361-373.

Abstract: "In this paper, the author draws from experiences in clinical practice with minority youth to highlight issues of racism and ethnic identity emergent in treatment. Three cases illustrate discussions of struggles with racism and ethnic identity as they emerged in therapy. In each case, the struggles were made salient by the therapist's purposeful eliciting of them to clarify issues of transference, family relations, peer group relations, and achievement."


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