Telepsychology & Internet-Based Therapy

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Telepsychology, Telehealth, & Internet-Based Therapy

Kenneth S. Pope, Ph.D., ABPP

I gathered the following resources to help therapists, counselors, and other clinicians to keep abreast of the rapidly evolving professional guidelines, research, treatments, innovations, and practices in the areas of telepsychology, telehealth, internet-based therapy.

I've divided the resources into 3 sections:

1) Links to 22 sets of professional guidelines that focus on telepsychology, online counseling, internet-based therapy, etc.

2) Citations for 29 recent (i.e., published in 2016-2017) articles

3) State Psychology Board Telepsychology Laws, Regulations, Policies, & Opinions--This third section was generously compiled by psychologist Kenneth R. Drude, and I am indebted to him for his kind offer to post it here.

PLEASE NOTE: I created this site to be fully accessible for people with disabilities; please follow this link to change text size, color, or contrast; please follow this link for other accessibility functions for those with visual, mobility, and other disabilities.

Links to 22 Sets of Professional Guidelines Focusing on Telepsychology and Internet-Based Therapy:

NOTE: Please follow this link for a more comprehensive array of professional standards and guidelines than those below.


29 Recent (2016-17) Published Articles:

Acierno, R., Knapp, R., Tuerk, P., Gilmore, A. K., Lejuez, C., Ruggiero, K., et al. (2017). A non-inferiority trial of Prolonged Exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder: In person versus home-based telehealth. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 89, 57-65. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2016.11.009

Andersson, G. (2016). Internet-delivered psychological treatments. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 12, 157-179.

Baron, J. S., Hirani, S., & Newman, S. P. (2017). A randomised, controlled trial of the effects of a mobile telehealth intervention on clinical and patient-reported outcomes in people with poorly controlled diabetes. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 23(2), 207-216. doi: 10.1177/1357633X16631628

Bashshur, R. L., Shannon, G. W., Bashshur, N., & Yellowlees, P. M. (2016). The Empirical Evidence for Telemedicine Interventions in Mental Disorders. Telemedicine and e-Health, 22(2), 87-113.

Batastini, A. B., King, C. M., Morgan, R. D., & McDaniel, B. (2016). Telepsychological services with criminal justice and substance abuse clients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological services, 13(1), 20.

Brockway, Jo Ann, et al. 2016 Telephone-Delivered Problem-Solving Training After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Qualitative Analysis of Service Members' Perceptions. Rehabilitation Psychology:(in press)

Chavooshi, B., Mohammadkhani, P., & Dolatshahee, B. (2017). Telemedicine vs. in-person delivery of intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy for patients with medically unexplained pain: A 12-month randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 23(1), 133-141. doi: 10.1177/1357633X15627382

Corruble, Emmanuelle, et al. 2016 Telephone-administered psychotherapy in combination with antidepressant medication for the acute treatment of major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders 190:6-11.

Cox, A., Lucas, G., Marcu, A., Piano, M., Grosvenor, W., Mold, F., et al. (2017). Cancer survivors' experience with telehealth: A systematic review and thematic synthesis. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 19(1), No Pagination Specified. doi: 10.2196/jmir.6575

Egede, L. E., Gebregziabher, M., Walker, R. J., Payne, E. H., Acierno, R., & Frueh, B. C. (2017). Trajectory of cost overtime after psychotherapy for depression in older Veterans via telemedicine. Journal of Affective Disorders, 207, 157-162. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.09.044

Herbert, M. S., Afari, N., Liu, L., Heppner, P., Rutledge, T., Williams, K., et al. (2017). Telehealth versus in-person acceptance and commitment therapy for chronic pain: A randomized noninferiority trial. The Journal of Pain, 18(2), 200-211. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2016.10.014

Hilt, R. J. (2017). Telemedicine for child collaborative or integrated care. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, No Pagination Specified. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2017.05.001

Hooshmand, M., & Yao, K. (2017). Challenges facing children with special healthcare needs and their families: Telemedicine as a bridge to care. Telemedicine and e-Health, 23(1), 18-24. doi: 10.1089/tmj.2016.0055

Hubley, S., Lynch, S. B., Schneck, C., Thomas, M., & Shore, J. (2016). Review of key telepsychiatry outcomes. World Journal of Psychiatry, 6(2), 269.

Kim, H., Jhoo, J. H., & Jang, J.-W. (2017). The effect of telemedicine on cognitive decline in patients with dementia. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 23(1), 149-154. doi: 10.1177/1357633X15615049

Kramer, G. M., & Luxton, D. D. (2016). Telemental health for children and adolescents: An overview of legal, regulatory, and risk management issues. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology, 26(3), 198-203.

Kuester, A., Niemeyer, H., & Knaevelsrud, C. (2016). Internet-based interventions for posttraumatic stress: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clinical psychology review, 43, 1-16.

Morland, L. A., Greene, C. J., Rosen, C. S., Kuhn, E., Hoffman, J., & Sloan, D. M. (2017). Telehealth and eHealth interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder. Current Opinion in Psychology, 14, 102-108. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2016.12.003

Müller, K. I., Alstadhaug, K. B., & Bekkelund, S. I. (2017). Headache patients' satisfaction with telemedicine: A 12-month follow-up randomized non-inferiority trial. European Journal of Neurology, 24(6), 807-815. doi: 10.1111/ene.13294

Myers, K., & Vander Stoep, A. (2017). i-therapy: Asynchronous telehealth expands access to mental health care and challenges tenets of the therapeutic process. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(1), 5-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2016.11.001

Nelson, E. L., & Sharp, S. (2016). A Review of Pediatric Telemental Health. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 63(5), 913-931.

Powell, A. C., Chen, M., & Thammachart, C. (2017). The economic benefits of mobile apps for mental health and telepsychiatry services when used by adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 26(1), 125-133. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2016.07.013

Rakovshik, Sarah G., et al. 2016 Is Supervision Necessary? Examining the Effects of Internet-Based CBT Training With and Without Supervision. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology:(in press)

Saeed, S. A., Johnson, T. L., Bagga, M., & Glass, O. (2017). Training residents in the use of telepsychiatry: Review of the literature and a proposed elective. Psychiatric Quarterly, 88(2), 271-283. doi: 10.1007/s11126-016-9470-y

Sansom-Daly, U. M., Wakefield, C. E., McGill, B. C., Wilson, H. L., & Patterson, P. (2016). Consensus Among International Ethical Guidelines for the Provision of Videoconferencing-Based Mental Health Treatments. JMIR mental health, 3(2), e17.

Simacek, J., Dimian, A. F., & McComas, J. J. (2017). Communication intervention for young children with severe neurodevelopmental disabilities via telehealth. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(3), 744-767. doi: 10.1007/s10803-016-3006-z

Smith, C. J., Rozga, A., Matthews, N., Oberleitner, R., Nazneen, N., & Abowd, G. (2017). Investigating the accuracy of a novel telehealth diagnostic approach for autism spectrum disorder. Psychological Assessment, 29(3), 245-252. doi: 10.1037/pas0000317

Stewart, R. W., Orengo-Aguayo, R. E., Gilmore, A. K., & de Arellano, M. (2017). Addressing barriers to care among Hispanic youth: Telehealth delivery of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy. the Behavior Therapist, 40(3), 112-118.

Wang, F., & Wang, J.-D. (2017). Telehealth and sustainable improvements to quality of life. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 12(1), 173-184. doi: 10.1007/s11482-016-9460-0


State Psychology Board Telepsychology Laws/Regulations/Policies/Opinions


Kenneth P. Drude, Ph.D.

Statute and/or  Rules Adopted

California  California Telehealth Advancement Act of 2011,


Colorado State Board of Psychologist Examiners Policy 30-1 adopted 4-8-11. Teletheray Policy: Guidance Regarding Psychotherapy Through Electronic Means within the State of Colorado. At


Delaware Board of Examiners of Psychologists Regulations in CDR 24-3500, Section 18.0 Telepsychology at define telepsychology and standards for practicing telepsychology. As of January 2016 the licensing law (Title 24, Chapter 35, Section 3502 (6) defines the "practice of psychology" to include "the use of telemedicine". At


Kentucky  Statute  KRS 319.140  (2000) requires informed consent and maintaining confidentiality when using telehealth ;  Telehealth and Telepsychology Rule  201 KAR 26: 310  (2010) at


Hawaii Chapter 465, Section 465-3 (8) provides a limited exemption for psychologists employed by the Department of Defense providing telepsychological services


Idaho  Idaho Code § 54-2305-11 (2013) provides for establishing telepsychology rules


The Idaho Board of Psychologists Examiners with the Idaho Psychological Association adopted Guidelines for Electronic Transmission and Telepsychology in the State of Idaho in 2012 that are at


Kansas KAR 102-1-19 requires license in state to practice psychology regardless of person's location


Louisiana Telepsychology Guidelines


Louisiana State Board of Examiners OPINION NO. 013: TELEPSYCHOLOGY:


Mississippi Code Ann. § 73-31-3 (d)(ii)(7) and § 73-31-14(3)  practice of psychology includes telecommunications


Montana Administrative Rule 24.189.301(1) definition of a "professional relationship" includes telecommunications  Admin Rule 24.189.607 (4)(d)(ii) includes teleconferencing for postdoctoral supervision


New Hampshire Chapter 329-B, Section 329-B:16 states that the "electronic practice of psychology" is subject to standards of care adopted by the New Hampshire Board of Mental Health Practice


North Dakota  Administrative rule 43-51-02 defines services provided to residents of the state, regardless of how they are provided or the physical location of the provider, to be regulated by North Dakota law and rules .  The North Dakota State Board of Psychologist Examiners has a Board Statement on Telepsychology in North Dakota dated October 17, 2014 at


Ohio  Ohio Administrative Code  4732-17-01 (I) Telepsychology Rules (2011)


South Carolina Code Section 40-55-50 (C) requires psychology license to provide services in the state including by telecommunications


Tennessee  Code 63-11-203(a)(2)(A)(viii) defines telepsychology

(telepsychology rules being developed & reviewed by the Tennessee Board of Examiners of Psychology)


Utah  Administrative Rule R156-61-102 (3)(b) allows "direct supervision" of a supervisee in training to receive supervision remotely "...via real time electronic methods that allow for visual and audio interactions..."


Vermont  Statute Title 26, Chapter 055 § 3018  (1999) defines psychological services via telecommunications to be regulated by Vermont law  Administrative Rule 6.4 Telepractice  includes any interjuridictional "telepractice services"


Wisconsin –  Administrative Code Psy 2.14 (2) states that "A psychologist provides psychological services in this state whenever the patient or client is located in this state, regardless of whether the psychologist is temporarily located in this state or is providing services by electronic or telephonic means from the state where the psychologist is licensed.


Policy, Statments, Opinion or Position Papers


Colorado State Board of Psychology Examiners Administrative Policy 30-1 Teletherapy Policy- Guidance Regarding Psychotherapy Through Electronic Means in the State of Colorado


Florida – case in January 2012 board approved Florida licensed psychologist to provide telepsychology from Michigan to Florida, board opinion June, 5, 2006 regarding requirement for Florida license by Ohio psychologist in Florida and telepsychology to an Ohio citizen in Ohio.


Massachusetts 2006 psychology board opinion Provision of Services Via Electronic Means (same as North Carolina psychology board opinion)


North Carolina  2005 psychology board opinion Provision of Services Via Electronic Means, (same as New York psychology board statement) at


Texas -  Telepractice Policy Statement, Newsletter of Texas State Board of Examiners of Psychologists, Fall 1999, Vol. 12, No. 2, at


Virginia   Baker (2010) states policy statement issued by Virginia Board of Counseling Guidance on Technology-Assisted Counseling and Technology-Assisted Supervision used by the Virginia Board of Psychology


West Virginia Board of Examiners of Psychology policy statement Tele-Psychology-Skype lists cautions regarding the use of "skype" for providing psychological services



Position Papers


New York -  Engaging in Telepractice position paper  at


Massachusetts – 2006 psychology board opinion regarding telepsychology (same as NC opinion)


North Carolina  Provision of Services Via Electronic Means, 2005 position paper at


Other (e.g. Case rulings, opinions, policies)

Colorado State Board of Psychology Examiners Policies § 30-1 Teletherapy Policy


Louisiana – board opinion that psychologist must be licensed in La to provide telepsychology, that the psychologist is expected to have had a face to face relationship established previously  (November 2010 Board minutes – not online)


Texas -  Telepractice Policy Statement, Newsletter of Texas State Board of Examiners of Psychologists, Fall 1999, Vol. 12, No. 2, at


Committees Looking at Telepsychology Regulation/Rules


Indiana – joint Telepsychology Task Force with state psychology association and licensing board to develop telepsychology guidelines 2012 referenced in board March 2012 newsletter at and in IPA September 12, 2012 newsletter.



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