Telepsychology & Internet-Based Therapy

home  »  telepsychology

Telepsychology, Telehealth, & Internet-Based Therapy

Kenneth S. Pope, Ph.D., ABPP

I gathered the following resources to help therapists, counselors, and other clinicians to keep abreast of the rapidly evolving professional guidelines, research, treatments, innovations, and practices in the areas of telepsychology, telehealth, internet-based therapy.

I've divided the resources into 3 sections:

1) Links to 20 sets of professional guidelines that focus on telepsychology, online counseling, internet-based therapy, etc.

2) Citations for 58 recent (i.e., published in 2017-2020) articles

3) State Psychology Board Telepsychology Laws, Regulations, Policies, & Opinions—This third section was generously compiled by psychologist Kenneth R. Drude, and I am indebted to him for his kind offer to post it here.

PLEASE NOTE: I created this site to be fully accessible for people with disabilities; please follow this link to change text size, color, or contrast; please follow this link for other accessibility functions for those with visual, mobility, and other disabilities.

Links to 20 Sets of Professional Guidelines Focusing on Telepsychology and Internet-Based Therapy:

NOTE: Please follow this link for a more comprehensive array of professional standards and guidelines than those below.


58 Recent (2017-20) Articles:

Anderson, Kristen E., Byrne, Catherine E., Crosby, Ross D., & Le Grange, Daniel. (2017). Utilizing Telehealth to deliver family-based treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 50(10), 1235-1238.

Barnason, Susan, Zimmerman, Lani, Schulz, Paula, Pullen, Carol, & Schuelke, Sue. (2019). Weight management telehealth intervention for overweight and obese rural cardiac rehabilitation participants: A randomised trial. Journal of Clinical Nursing, published online in advance of print publication

Benson, S. S., Dimian, A. F., Elmquist, M., Simacek, J., McComas, J. J., & Symons, F. J. (2018). Coaching parents to assess and treat self-injurious behaviour via telehealth. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 62(12), 1114-1123.

Bhui, Kamaldeep. (2017). eHealth adventures in psychiatric therapeutics. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 210(4), 309-310.

Canter, Kimberly S., Deatrick, Janet A., Hilgart, Michelle M., Myers, Jeffrey, Vega, Gabriela, Ritterband, Lee M., & Kazak, Anne E. (2019). eSCCIP: A psychosocial ehealth intervention for parents of children with cancer. Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology, 7(1), 44-56.

Cardinale, Amanda M. (2018). The opportunity for telehealth to support neurological health care. Telemedicine and e-Health, 24(12), 969-978.

Chen, Yan-Ya, Guan, Bing-Sheng, Li, Ze-Kai, & Li, Xing-Yi. (2018). Effect of telehealth intervention on breast cancer patients' quality of life and psychological outcomes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 24(3), 157-167.

Cooper, S. E., Campbell, L. F., & Smucker Barnwell, S. (2019). Telepsychology: A primer for counseling psychologists. The Counseling Psychologist, 47(8), 1074-1114.

Dang, Stuti, Gomez-Orozco, Carlos A., van Zuilen, Maria H., & Levis, Silvina. (2018). Providing dementia consultations to veterans using clinical video telehealth: Results from a clinical demonstration project. Telemedicine and e-Health, 24(3), 203-209.

Deady, M., Choi, I., Calvo, R. A., Glozier, N., Christensen, H., & Harvey, S. B. (2017). eHealth interventions for the prevention of depression and anxiety in the general population: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry, 17.

Duff, Orlaith Mairead, Walsh, Deirdre M. J., Furlong, Bróna A., O'Connor, Noel E., Moran, Kieran A., & Woods, Catherine B. (2017). Behavior change techniques in physical activity ehealth interventions for people with cardiovascular disease: Systematic review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 19(8), 21-32.

Ebert, David D., Van Daele, Tom, Nordgreen, Tine, Karekla, Maria, Compare, Angelo, Zarbo, Cristina, . . . Taylor, Jacqui. (2018). Internet- and mobile-based psychological interventions: Applications, efficacy, and potential for improving mental health: A report of the EFPA E-Health Taskforce. European Psychologist, 23(2), 167-187.

Ferguson, Jenny, Craig, Emma A., & Dounavi, Katerina. (2019). Telehealth as a model for providing behaviour analytic interventions to individuals with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 49(2), 582-616.

Fiene, S. L., Stark, K. S., Kreiner, D. S., & Walker, T. R. (2019). Evaluating telehealth websites for information consistent with apa guidelines for telepsychology. Journal of Technology in Human Services. doi: 10.1080/15228835.2019.1702138

Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew, Richardson, Ben, Lewis, Vivienne, Linardon, Jake, Mills, Jacqueline, Juknaitis, Kerry, . . . Krug, Isabel. (2019). A randomized trial exploring mindfulness and gratitude exercises as eHealth-based micro-interventions for improving body satisfaction. Computers in Human Behavior, 95, 58-65.

Gassova, Zuzana, & Werner-Wilson, Ronald J. (2018). Characteristics of e-therapy websites involving marriage and family therapists. American Journal of Family Therapy, 46(1), 27-43.

Henry, Beverly W., Block, Derryl E., Ciesla, James R., McGowan, Beth Ann, & Vozenilek, John A. (2017). Clinician behaviors in telehealth care delivery: A systematic review. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 22(4), 869-888.

Kay-Lambkin, Frances J., Baker, Amanda L., Palazzi, Kerrin, Lewin, Terry J., & Kelly, Brian J. (2017). Therapeutic alliance, client need for approval, and perfectionism as differential moderators of response to eHealth and traditionally delivered treatments for comorbid depression and substance use problems. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 24(5), 728-739.

Kim, Eun hae, Gellis, Zvi D., Bradway, Christine K., & Kenaley, Bonnie. (2019). Depression care services and telehealth technology use for homebound elderly in the United States. Aging & Mental Health, 23(9), 1164-1173.

Kim, Sojung Claire, Shaw, Bret R., Shah, Dhavan V., Hawkins, Robert P., Pingree, Suzanne, McTavish, Fiona M., & Gustafson, David H. (2019). Interactivity, presence, and targeted patient care: Mapping e-health intervention effects over time for cancer patients with depression. Health Communication, 34(2), 162-171.

Larson, Jamie L., Rosen, Adam B., & Wilson, Fernando A. (2018). The effect of telehealth interventions on quality of life of cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Telemedicine and e-Health, 24(6), 397-405.

Lawson, D. W., Stolwyk, R. J., Ponsford, J. L., McKenzie, D. P., Downing, M. G., & Wong, D. (2020). Telehealth delivery of memory rehabilitation following stroke. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 26(1), 58-71.

Leavey, Katie, & Hawkins, Russell. (2017). Is cognitive behavioural therapy effective in reducing suicidal ideation and behaviour when delivered face-to-face or via e-health? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 46(5), 353-374.

Martyr, M. A., Kivlighan Iii, D. M., & Ali, S. R. (2019). The role of telepsychology training clinics in addressing health disparities with rural Latinx immigrant communities. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 5(4), 346-354.

Massoudi, Btissame, Holvast, Floor, Bockting, Claudi L. H., Burger, Huibert, & Blanker, Marco H. (2019). The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of e-health interventions for depression and anxiety in primary care: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 245, 728-743.

McGinn, M. M., Roussev, M. S., Shearer, E. M., McCann, R. A., Rojas, S. M., & Felker, B. L. (2019). Recommendations for using clinical video telehealth with patients at high risk for suicide. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 42(4), 587-595.

McLennan, John D. (2018). Video-conferencing telehealth linkage attempts to schools to facilitate mental health consultation. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry / Journal de l'Académie canadienne de psychiatrie de l'enfant et de l'adolescent, 27(2), 137-141.

Mikolasek, Michael, Berg, Jonas, Witt, Claudia M., & Barth, Jürgen. (2018). Effectiveness of mindfulness- and relaxation-based eHealth interventions for patients with medical conditions: A systematic review and synthesis. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 25(1), 1-16.

Morland, Leslie A., Greene, Carolyn J., Rosen, Craig S., Kuhn, Eric, Hoffman, Julia, & Sloan, Denise M. (2017). Telehealth and eHealth interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder. Current Opinion in Psychology, 14, 102-108.

Muellmann, Saskia, Forberger, Sarah, Möllers, Tobias, Bröring, Eileen, Zeeb, Hajo, & Pischke, Claudia R. (2018). Effectiveness of eHealth interventions for the promotion of physical activity in older adults: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine: An International Journal Devoted to Practice and Theory, 108, 93-110.

Nobleza, Deanna, Hagenbaugh, James, Blue, Shawn, Stepchin, Anna, Vergare, Michael, & Pohl, Charles A. (2018). The use of telehealth by medical and other health professional students at a college counseling center. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, published online in advance of print publication

O'Connor, Martin, Munnelly, Anita, Whelan, Robert, & McHugh, Louise. (2018). The efficacy and acceptability of third-wave behavioral and cognitive ehealth treatments: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Behavior Therapy, 49(3), 459-475.

Oosterveen, Emilie, Tzelepis, Flora, Ashton, Lee, & Hutchesson, Melinda J. (2017). A systematic review of eHealth behavioral interventions targeting smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and/or obesity for young adults. Preventive Medicine: An International Journal Devoted to Practice and Theory, 99, 197-206.

Perry, Kristen, Gold, Sari, & Shearer, Erika M. (2019). Identifying and addressing mental health providers' perceived barriers to clinical video telehealth utilization. Journal of Clinical Psychology, published online in advance of print publication

Pierce, Bradford S., Perrin, Paul B., & McDonald, Scott D. (2019). Demographic, organizational, and clinical practice predictors of U.S. psychologists' use of telepsychology. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, published online in advance of print publication

Podina, Ioana R., & Fodor, Liviu A. (2018). Critical review and meta-analysis of multicomponent behavioral e-health interventions for weight loss. Health Psychology, 37(6), 501-515.

Pollard, Joy S., Karimi, Kathleen A., & Ficcaglia, Michelle B. (2017). Ethical considerations in the design and implementation of a telehealth service delivery model. Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice, 17(4), 298-311.

Romani, Patrick W., & Schieltz, Kelly M. (2017). Ethical considerations when delivering behavior analytic services for problem behavior via telehealth. Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice, 17(4), 312-324.

Ryan, Claire, & Kushalnagar, Poorna. (2018). Towards health equity: Deaf adults' engagement in social e-health activities and e-communication with health care providers. Journal of Health Communication, 23(9), 836-841.

Scogin, Forrest, Lichstein, Kenneth, DiNapoli, Elizabeth A., Woosley, Julie, Thomas, S. Justin, LaRocca, Michael A., . . . Geyer, James D. (2018). Effects of integrated telehealth-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression and insomnia in rural older adults. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 28(3), 292-309.

Seiler, Annina, Klaas, Vanessa, Tröster, Gerhard, & Fagundes, Christopher P. (2017). ehealth and mhealth interventions in the treatment of fatigued cancer survivors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psycho-Oncology, 26(9), 1239-1253.

Sherifali, Diana, Nerenberg, Kara A., Wilson, Shanna, Semeniuk, Kevin, Ali, Muhammad Usman, Redman, Leanne M., & Adamo, Kristi B. (2017). The effectiveness of eHealth technologies on weight management in pregnant and postpartum women: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 19(10).

Shirazi, Elham, Shooshtari, Mitra Hakim, Shalbafan, Mohammad Reza, Hadi, Fatemeh, & Bidaki, Reza. (2017). E-health, telemedicine and telepsychiatry. [E-health, telemedicine and telepsychiatry.]. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 22(4), 266-269.

Stewart, Regan W., Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E., Cohen, Judith A., Mannarino, Anthony P., & de Arellano, Michael A. (2017). A pilot study of trauma-focused cognitive–behavioral therapy delivered via telehealth technology. Child Maltreatment, 22(4), 324-333.

Stewart, Regan W., Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E., Gilmore, Amanda K., & de Arellano, Michael. (2017). Addressing barriers to care among Hispanic youth: Telehealth delivery of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy. the Behavior Therapist, 40(3), 112-118.

Stratton, Elizabeth, Lampit, Amit, Choi, Isabella, Calvo, Rafael A., Harvey, Samuel B., & Glozier, Nicholas. (2017). Effectiveness of eHealth interventions for reducing mental health conditions in employees: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 12(12).

Sump, Layla A., Richman, David M., Schaefer, Anna Marie, Grubb, Laura M., & Brewer, Adam T. (2018). Telehealth and in-person training outcomes for novice discrete trial training therapists. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 51(3), 466-481.

Sutherland, Rebecca, Trembath, David, & Roberts, Jacqueline. (2018). Telehealth and autism: A systematic search and review of the literature. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 20(3), 324-336.

Tomlinson, Serena R. L., Gore, Nick, & McGill, Peter. (2018). Training individuals to implement applied behavior analytic procedures via telehealth: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Behavioral Education, 27(2), 172-222.

van Rijn, Annelies, Meiland, Franka, & Dröes, Rose-Marie. (2019). Linking two new e-health caregiver interventions to meeting centres for people with dementia and their carers; a process evaluation. Aging & Mental Health, published online in advance of print publication

Varker, Tracey, Brand, Rachel M., Ward, Janine, Terhaag, Sonia, & Phelps, Andrea. (2018). Efficacy of synchronous telepsychology interventions for people with anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and adjustment disorder: A rapid evidence assessment. Psychological Services, published online in advance of print publication

Vázquez, Andrea, Jenaro, Cristina, Flores, Noelia, Bagnato, María José, Pérez, Ma Carmen, & Cruz, Maribel. (2018). E-health interventions for adult and aging population with intellectual disability: A review. Frontiers in Psychology, 9.

Villani, Daniela, Cognetta, Chiara, Repetto, Claudia, Serino, Silvia, Toniolo, Davide, Scanzi, Francesco, & Riva, Giuseppe. (2018). Promoting emotional well-being in older breast cancer patients: Results from an ehealth intervention. Frontiers in Psychology, 9.

Wang, Fuhmei, & Wang, Jung-Der. (2017). Telehealth and sustainable improvements to quality of life. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 12(1), 173-184.

Whaibeh, E., Mahmoud, H., & Vogt, E. L. (2019). Reducing the treatment gap for LGBT mental health needs: The potential of telepsychiatry. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research. doi: 10.1007/s11414-019-09677-1

Williams, Kristine, Blyler, Diane, Vidoni, Eric D., Shaw, Clarissa, Wurth, JoEllen, Seabold, Denise, . . . Van Sciver, Angela. (2018). A randomized trial using telehealth technology to link caregivers with dementia care experts for in-home caregiving support: Famtechcare protocol. Research in Nursing & Health, 41(3), 219-227.

Wilson, Fernando A., Rampa, Sankeerth, Trout, Kate E., & Stimpson, Jim P. (2017). Telehealth delivery of mental health services: An analysis of private insurance claims data in the United States. Psychiatric Services, 68(12), 1303-1306.

Wrape, Elizabeth R., & McGinn, Meghan M. (2018). Clinical and ethical considerations for delivering couple and family therapy via telehealth. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, published online in advance of print publication


State Psychology Board Telepsychology Laws/Regulations/Policies/Opinions


Kenneth P. Drude, Ph.D.

Statute and/or  Rules Adopted

California  California Telehealth Advancement Act of 2011,


Colorado State Board of Psychologist Examiners Policy 30-1 adopted 4-8-11. Teletheray Policy: Guidance Regarding Psychotherapy Through Electronic Means within the State of Colorado. At


Delaware Board of Examiners of Psychologists Regulations in CDR 24-3500, Section 18.0 Telepsychology at define telepsychology and standards for practicing telepsychology. As of January 2016 the licensing law (Title 24, Chapter 35, Section 3502 (6) defines the "practice of psychology" to include "the use of telemedicine". At


Kentucky  Telehealth and Telepsychology Rule  201 KAR 26:310 at


Hawaii Chapter 465, Section 465-3 (8) provides a limited exemption for psychologists employed by the Department of Defense providing telepsychological services


Idaho  Idaho Code § 54-2305-11 (2013) provides for establishing telepsychology rules


The Idaho Board of Psychologists Examiners with the Idaho Psychological Association adopted: Idaho Psychological Association-Idaho Board of Psychologist Examiners Task Force: Guidelines for Electronic Transmission and Telepsychology in the State of Idaho


Louisiana Telepsychology Guidelines


Louisiana State Board of Examiners OPINION NO. 013: TELEPSYCHOLOGY:


Mississippi Code Ann. § 73-31-3 (d)(ii)(7) and § 73-31-14(3)  practice of psychology includes telecommunications


Montana Administrative Rule 24.189.301(1) definition of a "professional relationship" includes telecommunications  Admin Rule 24.189.607 (4)(d)(ii) includes teleconferencing for postdoctoral supervision


New Hampshire Chapter 329-B, Section 329-B:16 states that the "electronic practice of psychology" is subject to standards of care adopted by the New Hampshire Board of Mental Health Practice


North Dakota  Administrative rule 43-51-02 defines services provided to residents of the state, regardless of how they are provided or the physical location of the provider, to be regulated by North Dakota law and rules .  The North Dakota State Board of Psychologist Examiners has a Board Statement on Telepsychology in North Dakota dated October 17, 2014 at


Ohio  Ohio Administrative Code  4732-17-01 (I) Telepsychology Rules (2011)


South Carolina Code Section 40-55-50 (C) requires psychology license to provide services in the state including by telecommunications


Tennessee  Code 63-11-203(a)(2)(A)(viii) defines telepsychology

(telepsychology rules being developed & reviewed by the Tennessee Board of Examiners of Psychology)


Utah  Administrative Rule R156-61-102 (3)(b) allows "direct supervision" of a supervisee in training to receive supervision remotely "...via real time electronic methods that allow for visual and audio interactions..."


Vermont  Statute Title 26, Chapter 055 § 3018  (1999) defines psychological services via telecommunications to be regulated by Vermont law  Administrative Rule 6.4 Telepractice  includes any interjuridictional "telepractice services"


Wisconsin –  Administrative Code Psy 2.14 (2) states that "A psychologist provides psychological services in this state whenever the patient or client is located in this state, regardless of whether the psychologist is temporarily located in this state or is providing services by electronic or telephonic means from the state where the psychologist is licensed.


Policy, Statments, Opinion or Position Papers


Colorado State Board of Psychology Examiners Administrative Policy 30-1 Teletherapy Policy- Guidance Regarding Psychotherapy Through Electronic Means in the State of Colorado


Florida – case in January 2012 board approved Florida licensed psychologist to provide telepsychology from Michigan to Florida, board opinion June, 5, 2006 regarding requirement for Florida license by Ohio psychologist in Florida and telepsychology to an Ohio citizen in Ohio.


Massachusetts 2006 psychology board opinion Provision of Services Via Electronic Means (same as North Carolina psychology board opinion)


North Carolina  2005 psychology board opinion Provision of Services Via Electronic Means, (same as New York psychology board statement) at


Texas -  Telepractice Policy Statement, Newsletter of Texas State Board of Examiners of Psychologists, Fall 1999, Vol. 12, No. 2, at


Virginia   Baker (2010) states policy statement issued by Virginia Board of Counseling Guidance on Technology-Assisted Counseling and Technology-Assisted Supervision used by the Virginia Board of Psychology


West Virginia Board of Examiners of Psychology policy statement Tele-Psychology-Skype lists cautions regarding the use of "skype" for providing psychological services



Position Papers


New York -  Engaging in Telepractice position paper  at


Massachusetts – 2006 psychology board opinion regarding telepsychology (same as NC opinion)


North Carolina  Provision of Services Via Electronic Means, 2005 position paper at


Other (e.g. Case rulings, opinions, policies)

Colorado State Board of Psychology Examiners Policies § 30-1 Teletherapy Policy


Louisiana – board opinion that psychologist must be licensed in La to provide telepsychology, that the psychologist is expected to have had a face to face relationship established previously  (November 2010 Board minutes – not online)


Texas -  Telepractice Policy Statement, Newsletter of Texas State Board of Examiners of Psychologists, Fall 1999, Vol. 12, No. 2, at


Committees Looking at Telepsychology Regulation/Rules


Indiana – joint Telepsychology Task Force with state psychology association and licensing board to develop telepsychology guidelines 2012 referenced in board March 2012 newsletter at and in IPA September 12, 2012 newsletter.



[Back to Top]