Self-Care Resources for Clinicians

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Resources for Clinicians' Self-Care:

Enhancing Well-Being & Avoiding Burnout

Kenneth S. Pope, Ph.D., ABPP

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I gathered together the following information to help clinicians keep abreast of the latest books and peer-reviewed articles on clinicians' self-care, enhancing well-being, and avoiding burnout.

The ethics book by Melba Vasquez, Ph.D., ABPP, and me includes a chapter emphasizing the ethic of self-care.  The chapter recommends "creating strategies for self-care as early as possible in your education, training, and practice. Neglecting self-care early on can drain the enthusiasm, joy, resilience, and meaning out of a career. It can hurt our ability to practice ethically. It can sink us in discouragement, compassion fatigue, and burnout."

The chapter discusses each of the possible consequences of neglecting self-care, including:

It also discusses strategies for addressing common problem areas, including:

So crucial is the ethic of self-care that it is worth keeping up with the rapidly evolving theory, research, and practice in this area.

This web page presents recent (i.e., published in 2011-2013) cites for books and peer-reviewed journal articles addressing clinician self-care, well-being, and burnout.  The titles include, for example:

Because the literature on self-care, well-being, and burnout is so vast, the lists below are limited to books and articles focusing specifically on clinicians' self-care, well-being, or burnout.

RECENT BOOKS (2011-2013): 

Kottler, Jeffrey A. (2012), The Therapist's Workbook: Self-Assessment, Self-Care, and Self-Improvement Exercises for Mental Health Professionals (2nd ed.) (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc)

Skovholt, Thomas M. and Trotter-Mathison, Michelle (2011), The Resilient Practitioner: Burnout Prevention and Self-Care Strategies for Counselors, Therapists, Teachers, and Health Professionals (2nd ed.) (Counseling and psychotherapy: Investigating practice from scientific, historical, and cultural perspectives.; New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group)

124 RECENT ARTICLES (2011-2013):

Balevre, P. S., Cassells, J., and Buzaianu, E. (2012), 'Professional nursing burnout and irrational thinking: a replication study', J Nurses Staff Dev, 28 (1), 2-8.

Ballenger-Browning, Kara K., et al. (2011), 'Predictors of burnout among military mental health providers', Military Medicine, 176 (3), 253-60.

Bartram, Timothy, et al. (2012), 'Do perceived high performance work systems influence the relationship between emotional labour, burnout and intention to leave? A study of Australian nurses', Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68 (7), 1567-78.

Bellieni, C. V., et al. (2012), 'Assessing burnout among neonatologists', J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med.

Ben-Porat, Anat and Itzhaky, Haya (2011), 'The contribution of training and supervision to perceived role competence, secondary traumatization, and burnout among domestic violence therapists', The Clinical Supervisor, 30 (1), 95-108.

Blanchard, P., Rodrigues, M., and Colombat, P. (2012), 'On the prevalence and causes of oncologist burnout', J Clin Oncol, 30 (24), 3029-30.

Bobbio, A., Bellan, M., and Manganelli, A. M. (2012), 'Empowering leadership, perceived organizational support, trust, and job burnout for nurses: a study in an Italian general hospital', Health Care Manage Rev, 37 (1), 77-87.

Boudrias, J. S., Morin, A. J., and Brodeur, M. M. (2012), 'Role of psychological empowerment in the reduction of burnout in Canadian healthcare workers', Nurs Health Sci, 14 (1), 8-17.

Boudrias, Jean-Sebastien, Morin, Alexandre J. S., and Brodeur, Marie-Michele (2012), 'Role of psychological empowerment in the reduction of burnout in Canadian healthcare workers', Nursing & Health Sciences, 14 (1), 8-17.

Bowers, Len, et al. (2011), 'The relationship between leadership, teamworking, structure, burnout and attitude to patients on acute psychiatric wards', Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46 (2), 143-48.

Breiddal, Susan Mary Frownes (2012), 'Self-care in palliative care: A way of being', Illness, Crisis, & Loss, 20 (1), 5-17.

Buchele, Bonnie J. (2012), 'The AGPA Institute as a boost to therapist resilience in a post-9/11 world', International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 62 (4), 615-25.

Campagne, Daniel M. (2012), 'When therapists run out of steam: Professional boredom or burnout?', Revista de Psicopatología y Psicología Clínica, 17 (1), 75-85.

Canning, Sally Schwer (2011), 'Out of balance: Why I hesitate to practice and teach "self-care."', Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 30 (1), 70-74.

Caruso, A., et al. (2012), 'Burnout among physicians and nurses working in oncology', Med Lav, 103 (2), 96-105.

Cerimele, Joseph M. (2011), 'Does post-call syndrome exist, and is it related to physician burnout?', Academic Psychiatry, 35 (4), 272.

Chang, E., Eddins-Folensbee, F., and Coverdale, J. (2012), 'Survey of the prevalence of burnout, stress, depression, and the use of supports by medical students at one school', Acad Psychiatry, 36 (3), 177-82.

Chang, Elaine, Eddins-Folensbee, Florence, and Coverdale, John (2012), 'Survey of the prevalence of burnout, stress, depression, and the use of supports by medical students at one school', Academic Psychiatry, 36 (3), 177-82.

Cheung, Chau-Kiu and Chow, Esther Oi-Wah (2011), 'Reciprocal influences between burnout and effectiveness in professional care for elders', Social Work in Health Care, 50 (9), 694-718.

Christopher, John Chambers and Maris, Judy A. (2010), 'Integrating mindfulness as self-care into counselling and psychotherapy training', Counselling & Psychotherapy Research, 10 (2), 114-25.

Cimiotti, J. P., et al. (2012), 'Nurse staffing, burnout, and health care-associated infection', Am J Infect Control, 40 (6), 486-90.

Costa, E. F., et al. (2012), 'Burnout Syndrome and associated factors among medical students: a cross-sectional study', Clinics (Sao Paulo), 67 (6), 573-80.

D'Souza, Fiona, Egan, Sarah J., and Rees, Clare S. (2011), 'The relationship between perfectionism, stress and burnout in clinical psychologists', Behaviour Change, 28 (1), 17-28.

de Rooij, A. H., et al. (2012), 'Professional caregivers' mental health problems and burnout in small-scale and traditional long term care settings for elderly people with dementia in the Netherlands and Belgium', J Am Med Dir Assoc, 13 (5), 486 e7-11.

Dyrbye, L. N., et al. (2012), 'A Multi-institutional Study Exploring the Impact of Positive Mental Health on Medical Students' Professionalism in an Era of High Burnout', Acad Med, 87 (8), 1024-31.

Dyrbye, Liselotte N. and Shanafelt, Tait D. (2011), 'Physician burnout: A potential threat to successful health care reform', JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 305 (19), 2009-10.

Eagle, S., Creel, A., and Alexandrov, A. (2012), 'The Effect of Facilitated Peer Support Sessions on Burnout and Grief Management among Health Care Providers in Pediatric Intensive Care Units: A Pilot Study', J Palliat Med.

Eddy, Kamryn T. (2013), 'Patient Mortality as a Predictor of Burnout Among Clinicians Specializing in Eating Disorders', Psychotherapy.

Emold, Carol, et al. (2011), 'Communication skills, working environment and burnout among oncology nurses', European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 15 (4), 358-63.

Garcia-Izquierdo, M. and Rios-Risquez, M. I. (2012), 'The relationship between psychosocial job stress and burnout in emergency department: An exploratory study', Nurs Outlook.

Garrosa, Eva, et al. (2011), 'Role stress and personal resources in nursing: A cross-sectional study of burnout and engagement', International Journal of Nursing Studies, 48 (4), 479-89.

Gibbons, Chris (2010), 'Stress, coping and burn-out in nursing students', International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47 (10), 1299-309.

Goodman, Matthew J. and Schorling, John B. (2012), 'A mindfulness course decreases burnout and improves well-being among healthcare providers', International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 43 (2), 119-28.

Gorgens-Ekermans, G. and Brand, T. (2012), 'Emotional intelligence as a moderator in the stress-burnout relationship: a questionnaire study on nurses', J Clin Nurs, 21 (15-16), 2275-85.

Gosseries, O., et al. (2012), 'Burnout in healthcare workers managing chronic patients with disorders of consciousness', Brain Inj.

Gray-Stanley, Jennifer A. and Muramatsu, Naoko (2011), 'Work stress, burnout, and social and personal resources among direct care workers', Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32 (3), 1065-74.

Gupta, S., et al. (2012), 'Experiences of burnout and coping strategies utilized by occupational therapists', Can J Occup Ther, 79 (2), 86-95.

Hadad, Elad and Ben-Shahar, Asaf Rolef (2012), 'The things we're taking home with us: Understanding thearpist's self-care in trauma work', International Journal of Psychotherapy, 16 (1), 50-61.

Hamaideh, Shaher H. (2011), 'Burnout, social support, and job satisfaction among Jordanian mental health nurses', Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 32 (4), 234-42.

Hammig, O., Brauchli, R., and Bauer, G. F. (2012), 'Effort-reward and work-life imbalance, general stress and burnout among employees of a large public hospital in Switzerland', Swiss Med Wkly, 142, w13577.

Happell, Brenda, et al. (2012), 'The relationships between attitudes toward seclusion and levels of burnout, staff satisfaction, and therapeutic optimism in a district health service', Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 33 (5), 329-36.

Hazif-Thomas, C. and Thomas, P. (2011), 'Burnout and caregiving: A never-ending risk?', NPG Neurologie - Psychiatrie - Geriatrie, 11 (65), 181-87.

Helewa, R. M., Kholdebarin, R., and Hochman, D. J. (2012), 'Attending surgeon burnout and satisfaction with the establishment of a regional acute care surgical service', Can J Surg, 55 (4), 000611-611.

Hensel, J. M., Lunsky, Y., and Dewa, C. S. (2012), 'Exposure to client aggression and burnout among community staff who support adults with intellectual disabilities in Ontario, Canada', J Intellect Disabil Res, 56 (9), 910-5.

Hill, Robert G., et al. (2010), 'Whole team training to reduce burn-out amongst staff on an in-patient alcohol ward', Journal of Substance Use, 15 (1), 42-50.

Hinami, K., et al. (2012), 'Job characteristics, satisfaction, and burnout across hospitalist practice models', J Hosp Med, 7 (5), 402-10.

Hunter, Sally V. (2012), 'Walking in sacred spaces in the therapeutic bond: Therapists' experiences of compassion satisfaction coupled with the potential for vicarious traumatization', Family Process, 51 (2), 179-92.

Isaksson Ro, Karin E., et al. (2012), 'Will sick leave after a counselling intervention prevent later burnout? A 3-year follow-up study of Norwegian doctors', Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 40 (3), 278-85.

Jackson, C. (2012), 'The interface of caring, self-care, and technology in nursing education and practice: a holistic perspective', Holist Nurs Pract, 26 (2), 69-73.

Jacobs, L. M., et al. (2012), 'Burnout among workers in a pediatric health care system', Workplace Health Saf, 60 (8), 335-44.

Kay-Eccles, R. (2012), 'Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Between Coworker Social Support and Burnout Using a Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Model', West J Nurs Res.

Kim, Hansung (2011), 'Job conditions, unmet expectations, and burnout in public child welfare workers: How different from other social workers?', Children and Youth Services Review, 33 (2), 358-67.

Kinnersley, Paul, et al. (2010), 'The need to improve the interface between in-hours and out-of-hours GP care, and between out-of-hours care and self-care', Family Practice, 27 (6), 664-72.

Kozak, A., et al. (2012), 'Psychosocial work-related predictors and consequences of personal burnout among staff working with people with intellectual disabilities', Res Dev Disabil, 34 (1), 102-15.

Ksiazek, Ilona, et al. (2011), 'Burnout syndrome in surgical oncology and general surgery nurses: A cross-sectional study', European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 15 (4), 347-50.

Kumar, S. (2011), 'Burnout and psychiatrists: What do we know and where to from here?', Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 20 (4), 295-301.

Kumar, S., Sinha, P., and Dutu, G. (2012), 'Being satisfied at work does affect burnout among psychiatrists: A national follow-up study from New Zealand', Int J Soc Psychiatry.

Kumar, Shailesh, et al. (2011), 'Stresses experienced by psychiatrists and their role in burnout: A national follow-up study', International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 57 (2), 166-79.

Kushner, Robert F., Kessler, Sheila, and McGaghie, William C. (2011), 'Using behavior change plans to improve medical student self-care', Academic Medicine, 86 (7), 901-06.

Ladouceur, R. (2012), 'Burnout or burn-in?', Can Fam Physician, 58 (7), 722.

Landrum, B., Knight, D. K., and Flynn, P. M. (2012), 'The impact of organizational stress and burnout on client engagement', J Subst Abuse Treat, 42 (2), 222-30.

Lang, G. M., Patrician, P., and Steele, N. (2012), 'Comparison of nurse burnout across army hospital practice environments', J Nurs Scholarsh, 44 (3), 274-83.

Langballe, Ellen Melbye, et al. (2011), 'The predictive value of individual factors, work-related factors, and work-home interaction on burnout in female and male physicians: A longitudinal study', Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 27 (1), 73-85.

Lee, Jayoung, et al. (2011), 'Antecedents and consequences of three dimensions of burnout in psychotherapists: A meta-analysis', Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 42 (3), 252-58.

Lee, Jenny S. Y. and Akhtar, Syed (2011), 'Effects of the workplace social context and job content on nurse burnout', Human Resource Management, 50 (2), 227-45.

Leykin, Yan, Cucciare, Michael A., and Weingardt, Kenneth R. (2011), 'Differential effects of online training on job-related burnout among substance abuse counsellors', Journal of Substance Use, 16 (2), 127-35.

Li, B., et al. (2012), 'Group-level impact of work environment dimensions on burnout experiences among nurses: A multivariate multilevel probit model', Int J Nurs Stud.

Linnerooth, Peter J., Mrdjenovich, Adam J., and Moore, Bret A. (2011), 'Professional burnout in clinical military psychologists: Recommendations before, during, and after deployment', Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 42 (1), 87-93.

Lucock, Mike, et al. (2011), 'Self-care in mental health services: A narrative review', Health & Social Care in the Community, 19 (6), 602-16.

Malinowski, Alfred J. (2013), 'Characteristics of job burnout and humor among psychotherapists', Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 26 (1), 117-33.

Mazurkiewicz, R., et al. (2012), 'The prevalence and correlations of medical student burnout in the pre-clinical years: a cross-sectional study', Psychol Health Med, 17 (2), 188-95.

Mazurkiewicz, Rebecca, et al. (2012), 'The prevalence and correlations of medical student burnout in the pre-clinical years: A cross-sectional study', Psychology, Health & Medicine, 17 (2), 188-95.

McGarrigle, Tessa and Walsh, Christine A. (2011), 'Mindfulness, self-care, and wellness in social work: Effects of contemplative training', Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 30 (3), 212-33.

McGourty, Alison J., et al. (2010), 'Taking your participants home: Self-care within the research process', Counselling Psychology Review, 25 (4), 65-72.

Melo, Carol Gouveia and Oliver, David (2011), 'Can addressing death anxiety reduce health care workers' burnout and improve patient care?', Journal of Palliative Care, 27 (4), 287-95.

Miller, Grant D., et al. (2011), 'A preliminary examination of burnout among counselor trainees treating clients with recent suicidal ideation and borderline traits', Counselor Education and Supervision, 50 (5), 344-59.

Mills, S. and Rose, J. (2011), 'The relationship between challenging behaviour, burnout and cognitive variables in staff working with people who have intellectual disabilities', Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 55 (9), 844-57.

Moore, Sharon E., et al. (2011), 'Social work students and self-care: A model assignment for teaching', Journal of Social Work Education, 47 (3), 545-53.

Moreno-Jimenez, B., et al. (2012), 'A study of physicians' intention to quit: the role of burnout, commitment and difficult doctor-patient interactions', Psicothema, 24 (2), 263-70.

Morse, G., et al. (2012), 'Burnout in mental health services: a review of the problem and its remediation', Adm Policy Ment Health, 39 (5), 341-52.

Myers, Shannon B., et al. (2012), 'Self-care practices and perceived stress levels among psychology graduate students', Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 6 (1), 55-66.

Newell, Jason M. and MacNeil, Gordon A. (2011), 'A comparative analysis of burnout and professional quality of life in clinical mental health providers and health care administrators', Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 26 (1), 25-43.

Passalacqua, S. A. and Segrin, C. (2012), 'The effect of resident physician stress, burnout, and empathy on patient-centered communication during the long-call shift', Health Commun, 27 (5), 449-56.

Passalacqua, Stacey A. and Segrin, Chris (2012), 'The effect of resident physician stress, burnout, and empathy on patient-centered communication during the long-call shift', Health Communication, 27 (5), 449-56.

Pejušlcovi?, Bojana, et al. (2011), 'Burnout syndrome among physicians--The role of personality dimensions and coping strategies', Psychiatria Danubina, 23 (4), 389-95.

Pereira, Sandra Martins, Fonseca, Antonio M., and Carvalho, Ana Sofia (2011), 'Burnout in palliative care: A systematic review', Nursing Ethics, 18 (3), 317-26.

Peterson, Ulla, et al. (2011), 'Burnout levels and self-rated health prospectively predict future long-term sickness absence: A study among female health professionals', Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 53 (7), 788-93.

Pooler, David K. (2011), 'Professional flourishing: Re-visioning self-care using Imago Dei', Social Work & Christianity, 38 (4), 440-52.

Prinz, P., et al. (2012), 'Burnout, depression and depersonalisation--psychological factors and coping strategies in dental and medical students', GMS Z Med Ausbild, 29 (1), Doc10.

Richard, Angela A. and Shea, Kimberly (2011), 'Delineation of self-care and associated concepts', Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43 (3), 255-64.

Richards, Kelly C., Campenni, C. Estelle, and Muse-Burke, Janet L. (2010), 'Self-care and well-being in mental health professionals: The mediating effects of self-awareness and mindfulness', Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 32 (3), 247-64.

Ripp, Jonathan A., Korenstein, Deborah, and Pecker, Mark (2011), 'Medical student burnout and professionalism', JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 305 (1), 37.

Ripp, Jonathan, et al. (2011), 'The incidence and predictors of job burnout in first-year internal medicine residents: A five-institution study', Academic Medicine, 86 (10), 1304-10.

Rossler, W. (2012), 'Stress, burnout, and job dissatisfaction in mental health workers', Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci.

Rudman, A. and Gustavsson, J. P. (2012), 'Burnout during nursing education predicts lower occupational preparedness and future clinical performance: A longitudinal study', Int J Nurs Stud, 49 (8), 988-1001.

Rudman, Ann and Gustavsson, J. Petter (2011), 'Early-career burnout among new graduate nurses: A prospective observational study of intra-individual change trajectories', International Journal of Nursing Studies, 48 (3), 292-306.

Salyers, Michelle P., et al. (2011), 'BREATHE: A pilot study of a one-day retreat to reduce burnout among mental health professionals', Psychiatric Services, 62 (2), 214-17.

Shanafelt, T. and Dyrbye, L. (2012), 'Oncologist burnout: causes, consequences, and responses', J Clin Oncol, 30 (11), 1235-41.

Shanafelt, T. D., et al. (2012), 'Avoiding burnout: the personal health habits and wellness practices of US surgeons', Ann Surg, 255 (4), 625-33.

Shanafelt, T. D., et al. (2012), 'Burnout and Satisfaction With Work-Life Balance Among US Physicians Relative to the General US Population', Arch Intern Med, 1-9.

Shin, Tzung-Bai and Jin, Shuh-Ren (2010), 'The qualitative study of "mindfulness group" toward the self-care and counseling practice of counselor interns, Bulletin of Educational Psychology, 42 (1), 163-84.

Smith, Richard J. and Clark, Sherrill J. (2011), 'Does job resource loss reduce burnout and job exit for professionally trained social workers in child welfare?', Children and Youth Services Review, 33 (10), 1950-59.

Sochos, Antigonos, Bowers, Alexis, and Kinman, Gail (2012), 'Work stressors, social support, and burnout in junior doctors: Exploring direct and indirect pathways', Journal of Employment Counseling, 49 (2), 62-73.

Sochos, Antigonos and Bowers, Alexis (2012), 'Burnout, occupational stressors, and social support in psychiatric and medical trainees', The European Journal of Psychiatry, 26 (3), 196-206.

Spence Laschinger, H. K., Wong, C. A., and Grau, A. L. (2012), 'The influence of authentic leadership on newly graduated nurses' experiences of workplace bullying, burnout and retention outcomes: A cross-sectional study', Int J Nurs Stud.

Sundin, L., Hochwaelder, J., and Lisspers, J. (2011), 'A longitudinal examination of generic and occupational specific job demands, and work-related social support associated with burnout among nurses in Sweden', Work: Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation, 38 (4), 389-400.

Suner-Soler, R., et al. (2012), 'Burnout and quality of life among Spanish healthcare personnel', J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs.

Toh, Shir Gi, Ang, Emily, and Devi, M. Kamala (2012), 'Systematic review on the relationship between the nursing shortage and job satisfaction, stress and burnout levels among nurses in oncology/haematology settings', International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare, 10 (2), 126-41.

Upton, D., et al. (2012), 'The experience of burnout across different surgical specialties in the United Kingdom: a cross-sectional survey', Surgery, 151 (4), 493-501.

Van Bogaert, P., et al. (2012), 'Impacts of unit-level nurse practice environment, workload and burnout on nurse-reported outcomes in psychiatric hospitals: A multilevel modelling approach', Int J Nurs Stud.

van der Doef, Margot, Mbazzi, Femke Bannink, and Verhoeven, Chris (2012), 'Job conditions, job satisfaction, somatic complaints and burnout among East African nurses', Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21 (11-12), 1763-75.

Vilardaga, Roger, et al. (2011), 'Burnout among the addiction counseling workforce: The differential roles of mindfulness and values-based processes and work-site factors', Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 40 (4), 323-35.

Wang, Y., et al. (2012), 'Work-family Conflict and Burnout among Chinese Doctors: The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital', J Occup Health, 54 (3), 232-40.

Warren, C. S., et al. (2012), 'A qualitative analysis of job burnout in eating disorder treatment providers', Eat Disord, 20 (3), 175-95.

Warren, Cortney S., et al. (2012), 'A qualitative analysis of job burnout in eating disorder treatment providers', Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention, 20 (3), 175-95.

Weng, Hui-Ching, et al. (2011), 'Associations between emotional intelligence and doctor burnout, job satisfaction and patient satisfaction', Medical Education, 45 (8), 835-42.

West, Colin P., Shanafelt, Tait D., and Kolars, Joseph C. (2011), 'Quality of life, burnout, educational debt, and medical knowledge among internal medicine residents', JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 306 (9), 952-60.

Wlodarczyk, Dorota and Lazarewicz, Magdalena (2011), 'Frequency and burden with ethical conflicts and burnout in nurses', Nursing Ethics, 18 (6), 847-61.

Wolf, Cheryl Pence, Thompson, Isabel A., and Smith-Adcock, Sondra (2012), 'Wellness in counselor preparation: Promoting individual well-being', The Journal of Individual Psychology, 68 (2), 164-81.

Wu, S., et al. (2012), 'Effect of work stressors, personal strain, and coping resources on burnout in chinese medical professionals: a structural equation model', Ind Health, 50 (4), 279-87.

Yang, Hong-Jun and Zhu, Jia (2011), 'Relationship between attachment type and work stress, job burnout in counselors. [Relationship between attachment type and work stress, job burnout in counselors.]', Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 19 (1), 110-12.

Young, Christina, et al. (2012), 'Burnout in premedical undergraduate students', Academic Psychiatry, 36 (1), 11-16.

Zenasni, F., et al. (2012), 'Burnout and empathy in primary care: three hypotheses', Br J Gen Pract, 62 (600), 346-7.

Zerubavel, Noga and Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty (2012), 'The dilemma of the wounded healer', Psychotherapy, 49 (4), 482-91.

 

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