Forgiveness in Therapy & Counseling

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Forgiveness Resources for Therapists & Counselors

Kenneth S. Pope, Ph.D., ABPP

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The following references may help therapists, counselors, and other clinicians who wish to keep abreast of the research, theory, and related literature on forgiveness.

Although there is a massive literature on forgiveness, I've focused only on works concerned with forgiveness in therapy, counseling, medical, and other clinical contexts.

I've arranged the references into 3 groups: articles, chapters, and books.

Articles:

Allemand, M., Steiner, M., & Hill, P. L. (2013). Effects of a forgiveness intervention for older adults. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(2), 279-286.

Balkin, R. S., Freeman, S. J., & Lyman, S. R. (2009). Forgiveness, reconciliation, and mechila: Integrating the Jewish concept of forgiveness into clinical practice. Counseling and Values, 53(2), 153-159.

Barnett, J. K., & Youngberg, C. (2004). Forgiveness as a ritual in couples therapy. The Family Journal, 12(1), 14-20.

Baskin, T. W., & Enright, R. D. (2004). Intervention Studies on Forgiveness: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Counseling & Development, 82(1), 79-90.

Baskin, T. W., Rhody, M., Schoolmeesters, S., & Ellingson, C. (2011). Supporting special-needs adoptive couples: Assessing an intervention to enhance forgiveness, increase marital satisfaction, and prevent depression ψ. The Counseling Psychologist, 39(7), 933-955

Belcher, J. R., Morano, C., & DeForge, B. R. (2004). Treating Resistant Couples: The Use of Forgiveness in Conservative Christian and Jewish Traditions. Family Therapy, 31(2), 71-85.

Berecz, J. M. (2001). All that glitters is not gold: Bad forgiveness in counseling and preaching. Pastoral Psychology, 49(4), 253-275.

Berry, J. W., & Worthington, E. L., Jr. (2001). Forgivingness, relationship quality, stress while imagining relationship events, and physical and mental health. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48(4), 447-455.

Bin Ahmad, K. Z. (2011). Alternatives to simply forgiving and forgetting: Comparing techniques in hypnosis, NLP and Time Line TherapyTM in reducing the intensity of memories of stressful events. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 27(3), 241-250.

Blocher, W. G., & Wade, N. G. (2010). Sustained effectiveness of two brief group interventions: Comparing an explicit forgiveness-promoting treatment with a process-oriented treatment. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 32(1), 58-74.

Blomberg, C. L. (2006). On Building and Breaking Barriers: Forgiveness, Salvation and Christian Counseling with Special Reference to Matthew 18:15-35. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 25(2), 137-154.

Bonach, K. (2007). Forgiveness intervention model: Application to coparenting post-divorce. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 48(1-2), 105-123.

Cheong, R. K., & DiBlasio, F. A. (2007). Christ-like love and forgiveness: A biblical foundation for counseling practice. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 26(1), 14-25.

Cioni, P. F. (2007). Forgiveness, cognitive restructuring and object transformation. Journal of Religion and Health, 46(3), 385-397.

Clemmens, M. C. (2007). Commentary II: "Working with forgiveness.". Gestalt Review, 11(2), 123-126.

Cosgrove, L., & Konstam, V. (2008). Forgiveness and forgetting: Clinical implications for mental health counselors. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 30(1), 1-13.

Crocker, S. F. (2007). Commentary: "Working with forgiveness.". Gestalt Review, 11(2), 120-122.

Day, A., Gerace, A., Wilson, C., & Howells, K. (2008). Promoting forgiveness in violent offenders: A more positive approach to offender rehabilitation? Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13(3), 195-200.

Denton, R. T., & Martin, M. W. (1998). Defining forgiveness: An empirical exploration of process and role. American Journal of Family Therapy, 26(4), 281-292.

DiBlasio, F. A. (2010). Christ-like forgiveness in marital counseling: A clinical follow-up of two empirical studies.Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 29(4), 291-300.

DiBlasio, F. A. (2000). Decision-based forgiveness treatment in cases of marital infidelity. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 37(2), 149-158.

DiBlasio, F. A., Worthington, E. L., Jr., & Jennings, D. J. II. (2013). Forgiveness interventions with children, adolescents, and families. In D. F. Walker & W. L. Hathaway (Eds.), Spiritual interventions in child and adolescent psychotherapy (pp. 233-258). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Eckstein, D., Sperber, M., & McRae, S. (2009). Forgiveness: Another relationship 'f word'‚ A couple's dialogue. The Family Journal, 17(3), 256-262.

Elliott, B. A. (2011). Forgiveness therapy: A clinical intervention for chronic disease. Journal of Religion and Health,50(2), 240-247.

Exline, J. J., Prince-Paul, M., Root, B. L., Peereboom, K. S., & Worthington, E. L., Jr. (2012). Forgiveness, depressive symptoms, and communication at the end of life: a study with family members of hospice patients. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 15(10), 1113-1119.

Farrow, T. F. D., Hunter, M. D., Wilkinson, I. D., Gouneea, C., Fawbert, D., Smith, R., et al. (2005). Quantifiable change in functional brain response to empathic and forgivability judgments with resolution of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 140(1), 45-53.

Ferch, S. R. (1998). Intentional forgiving as a counseling intervention. Journal of Counseling & Development, 76(3), 261-270.

Fife, S. T., Weeks, G. R., & Stellberg-Filbert, J. (2013). Facilitating forgiveness in the treatment of infidelity: An interpersonal model. Journal of Family Therapy, 35(4), 343-367.

Freedman, S. (1998). Forgiveness and reconciliation: The importance of understanding how they differ. Counseling and Values, 42(3), 200-216.

Freedman, S. (2000). Creating an expanded view: How therapists can help their clients forgive. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 11(1), 87-92.

Freedman, S., & Chang, W.-C. R. (2010). An analysis of a sample of the general population's understanding of forgiveness: Implications for mental health counselors. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 32(1), 5-34.

Glaeser, M. (2008). What does it take to let go? An investigation into the facilitating and obstructing factors of forgiveness—The therapist’s perspective. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 21(4), 337-348.

Goldman, D. B., & Wade, N. G. (2012). Comparison of forgiveness and anger-reduction group treatments: a randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy Research, 22(5), 604-620.

Greenberg, L., Warwar, S., & Malcolm, W. (2010). Emotion-focused couples therapy and the facilitation of forgiveness. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 36(1), 28-42.

Greenberg, L. J., Warwar, S. H., & Malcolm, W. M. (2008). Differential effects of emotion- focused therapy and psychoeducation in facilitating forgiveness and letting go of emotional injuries. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55(2), 185-196.

Hansen, M. J., Enright, R. D., Baskin, T. W., & Klatt, J. (2009). A palliative care intervention in forgiveness therapy for elderly terminally Ill cancer patients. Journal of Palliative Care, 25(1), 51-60.

Harper, Q., Worthington, E. L., Jr., Griffin, B. J., Lavelock, C. R., Hook, J. N., Vrana, S. R., et al. (2014). Efficacy of a Workbook to Promote Forgiveness: A Randomized Controlled Trial With University Students. Journal of Clinical Psychology, in press.

Harris, E. S. (2007). Working with forgiveness in gestalt therapy. Gestalt Review, 11(2), 108-119.

Hill, E. W. (2001). Understanding forgiveness as discovery: Implications for marital and family therapy. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 23(4), 369-384.

Hill, E. W. (2010). Discovering forgiveness through empathy: Implications for couple and family therapy. Journal of Family Therapy, 32(2), 169-185.

Hill, E. W., Hasty, C., & Moore, C. J. (2011). Differentiation of self and the process of forgiveness: A clinical perspective for couple and family therapy. ANZJFT: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 32(1), 43-57. 

Hook, J. N., Worthington, E. L., Jr., & Utsey, S. O. (2009). Collectivism, forgiveness, and social harmony. The Counseling Psychologist, 37(6), 821-847.

Hui, E. K. P., & Ho, D. K. Y. (2004). Forgiveness in the context of developmental guidance: Implementation and evaluation. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 32(4), 471-492.

Ianni, P. A., Hart, K. E., Hibbard, S., & Carroll, M. (2010). The association between self-forgiveness and alcohol misuse depends on the severity of drinker's shame: Toward a buffering model. Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment, 9(3), 106-111.

Ingersoll-Dayton, B., Campbell, R., & Ha, J.-H. (2009). Enhancing forgiveness: A group intervention for the elderly. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 52(1), 2-16.

Jacinto, G. A., & Edwards, B. L. (2011). Therapeutic stages of forgiveness and self-forgiveness. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 21(4), 423-437.

Johnson, J. L., & Butzen, N. D. (2008). Psychoticism as a predictor of vengefulness, forgiveness and religious commitment. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 27(4), 329-336.

Jose, O. A., & Alfons, V. (2007). Religiosity and forgiveness among first-married and remarried adults. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 10(4), 379-394.

Kaminer, D., Stein, D. J., Mbanga, I., & Zungu-Dirwayi, N. (2000). Forgiveness: Toward an integration of theoretical models. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 63 (4), 344-357.

Kaminer, D., Stein, D. J., Mbanga, I., & Zungu-Dirwayi, N. (2001). The Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa: Relation to psychiatric status and forgiveness among survivors of human rights abuses. British Journal of Psychiatry, 178, 373-377.

Konstam, V., Marx, F., Schurer, J., Harrington, A., Lombardo, N. E., & Deveney, S. (2000). Forgiving: What mental health counselors are telling us. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 22(3), 253-267.

Lamb, S. (2005). Forgiveness Therapy: The Context and Conflict. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 25(1), 61-80.

Lambert, N. M., Fincham, F. D., Stillman, T. F., Graham, S. M., & Beach, S. R. (2010). Motivating change in relationships: can prayer increase forgiveness? Psychological Science, 21(1), 126-132.

Lander, I. (2014) Expanding the Horizons of Forgiveness Therapy: A Cross-Cultural Application with a Bedouin-Arab Woman. Clinical Social Work Journal.

Langman, L., & Chung, M. C. (2013). The Relationship Between Forgiveness, Spirituality, Traumatic Guilt and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Among People with Addiction. Psychiatric Quarterly, 84(1), 11-26.

Lansky, M. R. (2009). Forgiveness as the working through of splitting. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 29(5), 374-385.

Larsen, B. A., Darby, R. S., Harris, C. R., Nelkin, D. K., Milam, P. E., & Christenfeld, N. J. (2012). The immediate and delayed cardiovascular benefits of forgiving. Psychosomatic Medicine, 74(7), 745-750.

Legaree, T.-A., Turner, J., & Lollis, S. (2007). Forgiveness and therapy: A critical review of conceptualizations, practices, and values found in the literature. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33(2), 192-213.

Lin, W.-F. (2010). The treatment of substance abuse disorders by the psychological forgiveness. Bulletin of Educational Psychology, 41(4), 859-883.

Lin, W.-F., Mack, D., Enright, R. D., Krahn, D., & Baskin, T. W. (2004). Effects of Forgiveness Therapy on Anger, Mood, and Vulnerability to Substance Use Among Inpatient Substance-Dependent Clients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(6), 1114-1121.

Luskin, F. M., Ginzburg, K., & Thoresen, C. E. (2005). The efficacy of forgiveness intervention in college age adults: Randomized controlled study. Humboldt Journal of Social Relations, 29(2), 163-184.

Lyons, G. C. B., Deane, F. P., Caputi, P., & Kelly, P. J. (2011). Spirituality and the treatment of substance use disorders: An exploration of forgiveness, resentment and purpose in life. Addiction Research & Theory, 19(5), 459-469

Macaskill, A. (2005). The treatment of forgiveness in counselling and therapy. Counselling Psychology Review, 20(1), 26-32.

Makinen, J. A., & Johnson, S. M. (2006). Resolving attachment injuries in couples using emotionally focused therapy: Steps toward forgiveness and reconciliation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(6), 1055-1064.

Mamalakis, P. M. (2001). Painting a bigger picture: Forgiveness therapy with pre-marital infidelity: A case study. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 12(1), 39-54.

McKay, K. M., Hill, M. S., Freedman, S. R., & Enright, R. D. (2007). Towards a feminist empowerment model of forgiveness psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 44(1), 14-29.

McNulty, J. K. (2011). The dark side of forgiveness: The tendency to forgive predicts continued psychological and physical aggression in marriage. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(6), 770-783. 

McNulty, J. K. (2010). Forgiveness increases the likelihood of subsequent partner transgressions in marriage. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(6), 787-790.

Menahem, S., & Love, M. (2013). Forgiveness in psychotherapy: The key to healing. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(8), 829-835.

Meneses, C. W., & Greenberg, L. S. (2011). The construction of a model of the process of couples’ forgiveness in emotion-focused therapy for couples. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 37(4), 491-502.

Olmstead, S. B., Blick, R. W., & Mills, L. I., III. (2009). Helping couples work toward the forgiveness of marital infidelity: Therapists' perspectives. American Journal of Family Therapy, 37(1), 48-66.

Osterndorf, C., Enright, R., Holter, A., & Klatt, J. (2011). Treating adult children of alcoholics through forgiveness therapy. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 29(3), 274-292.

Reed, G. L., & Enright, R. D. (2006). The effects of forgiveness therapy on depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress for women after spousal emotional abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(5), 920-929.

Robb, H. B., III. (2007).  Treating anger with forgiveness may sometimes require reconciliation. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 25(1), 65-75.

Romig, C. A., & Veenstra, G. (1998). Forgiveness and psychosocial development: Implications for clinical practice. Counseling and Values, 42(3), 185-199.

Rotter, J. C. (2001). Letting go: Forgiveness in counseling. The Family Journal, 9(2), 174-177.

Scherer, M., Worthington, E. L., Jr., Hook, J. N., & Campana, K. L. (2011). Forgiveness and the bottle: Promoting self-forgiveness in individuals who abuse alcohol. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 30(4), 382-395. 

Shechtman, Z., Wade, N., & Khoury, A. (2009). Effectiveness of a forgiveness program for Arab Israeli adolescents in Israel: An empirical trial. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 15(4), 415-438.

Siassi, S. (2007). Forgiveness, acceptance and the matter of expectation. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 88(6), 1423-1440.

Svalina, S. S., & Webb, J. R. (2012). Forgiveness and health among people in outpatient physical therapy. Disability Rehabilitation, 34(5), 383-392.

Tanaka, T. (2006). Forgiveness Observed in Mother-Daughter Relationship: A Counseling Approach to Inducing Forgiveness. Japanese Journal of Counseling Science, 39(3), 241-249.

Toussaint, L. L., Marschall, J. C., & Williams, D. R. (2012). Prospective Associations between Religiousness/Spirituality and Depression and Mediating Effects of Forgiveness in a Nationally Representative Sample of United States Adults. Depression Research & Treatment, 2012, 267820.

Toussaint, L., Overvold-Ronningen, M., Vincent, A., Luedtke, C., Whipple, M., Schriever, T., et al. (2010). Implications of forgiveness enhancement in patients with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy, 16(3-4), 123-139.

Vitz, P. C., & Meade, J. M. (2011). Self-forgiveness in psychology and psychotherapy: A critique. Journal of Religion and Health, 50(2), 248-263. 

Wade, N. G. (2010). Introduction to the special issue on forgiveness in therapy. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 32(1), 1-4.

Wade, N. G., Bailey, D. C., & Shaffer, P. (2005). Helping Clients Heal: Does Forgiveness Make a Difference? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36(6), 634-641.

Wade, N. G., Hoyt, W. T., Kidwell, J. E. M., & Worthington, E. L., Jr. (2014). Efficacy of psychotherapeutic interventions to promote forgiveness: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(1), 154-170.

Wade, N. G., Johnson, C. V., & Meyer, J. E. (2008). Understanding concerns about interventions to promote forgiveness: A review of the literature. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 45(1), 88-102.

Wade, N. G., & Meyer, J. E. (2009). Comparison of brief group interventions to promote forgiveness: A pilot outcome study. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 59 (2), 199-220.

Wade, N. G., & Worthington, E. L., Jr. (2005). In Search of a Common Core: A Content Analysis of Interventions to Promote Forgiveness. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(2), 160-177.

Wade, N. G., Worthington, E. L., Jr., & Haake, S. (2009). Comparison of explicit forgiveness interventions with an alternative treatment: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Counseling & Development, 87(2), 143-151.

Waldron, V. R., & Kelley, D. L. (2005). Forgiving communication as a response to relational transgressions. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22(6), 723-742.

Waltman, M. A., Russell, D. C., Coyle, C. T., Enright, R. D., Holter, A. C., & Swoboda, C. M. (2009). The effects of a forgiveness intervention on patients with coronary artery disease. Psychology & Health, 24(1), 11-27.

Walton, E. (2005). Therapeutic Forgiveness: Developing a Model for Empowering Victims of Sexual Abuse. Clinical Social Work Journal, 33(2), 193-207.

Watson, M. J., Lydecker, J. A., Jobe, R. L., Enright, R. D., Gartner, A., Mazzeo, S. E., & Worthington, E. L., Jr. (2012). Self-forgiveness in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention,20(1), 31-41. 

Webb, J. R., Robinson, E. A. R., & Brower, K. J. (2011). Mental health, not social support, mediates the forgiveness-alcohol outcome relationship. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 25(3), 462-473.

Webb, J. R., Toussaint, L., Kalpakjian, C. Z., & Tate, D. G. (2010). Forgiveness and health-related outcomes among people with spinal cord injury. Disability & Rehabilitation, 32 (5), 360-366.

Webb, J. R., & Trautman, R. P. (2010). Forgiveness and alcohol use: Applying a specific spiritual principle to substance abuse problems. Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment, 9(1), 8-17.

West, W. (2001). Issues relating to the use of forgiveness in counselling and psychotherapy. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 29(4), 415-423.

Whited, M. C., Wheat, A. L., & Larkin, K. T. (2010). The influence of forgiveness and apology on cardiovascular reactivity and recovery in response to mental stress. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 33(4), 293-304.

Williamson, I., & Gonzales, M. H. (2007). The subjective experience of forgiveness: Positive construals of the forgiveness experience. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26 (4), 407-446.

Wohl, M. J. A., DeShea, L., & Wahkinney, R. L. (2008). Looking within: Measuring state self- forgiveness and its relationship to psychological well-being. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 40(1), 1-10.

Worthington, E. L., Jr., Hunter, J. L., Sharp, C. B., Hook, J. N., Van Tongeren, D. R., Davis, D. E., et al. (2010). A psychoeducational intervention to promote forgiveness in Christians in the Philippines. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 32(1), 75-93.

Worthington, E. L., Jr., Jennings, D. J. II, & DiBlasio, F. A. (2010). Interventions to promote forgiveness in couple and family context: Conceptualization, review, and analysis. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 38(4), 231-245.

Worthington, E. L., Jr., Kurusu, T. A., Collins, W., Berry, J. W., Ripley, J. S., & Baier, S. N. (2000). Forgiving usually takes time: A lesson learned by studying interventions to promote forgiveness. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 28(1), 3-20.

Worthington, E. L., Jr., & Wade, N. G. (1999). The psychology of unforgiveness and forgiveness and implications for clinical practice. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 18(4), 385-418.

Yun, S. H., & Gallant, W. (2010). Evidence-based clinical practice: the effectiveness of music-based intervention for women experiencing forgiveness/grief issues. Journal of Evidence Based Social Work, 7(5), 361-376.

 

Chapters:

Affinito, M. G. (2002). Forgiveness in counseling: Caution, definition, and application Before forgiving: Cautionary views of forgiveness in psychotherapy. (pp. 88-111): New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.

Antonuccio, D., & Jackson, R. (2009). The science of forgiveness Handbook of contemporary psychotherapy: Toward an improved understanding of effective psychotherapy. (pp. 269-284): Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc.

Baker, M. E. (2008). Self-forgiveness: An empowering and therapeutic tool for working with women in recovery Women's reflections on the complexities of forgiveness. (pp. 61-74): New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Chagigiorgis, H., & Paivio, S. (2008). Forgiveness as an outcome in emotion-focused trauma therapy Women's reflections on the complexities of forgiveness. (pp. 121-141): New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Coleman, P. W. (1998). The process of forgiveness in marriage and the family Exploring forgiveness. (pp. 75-94): Madison, WI, US: University of Wisconsin Press.

Ducommun-Nagy, C. (2009). Forgiveness and relational ethics: The perspective of the contextual therapist Forgiveness and reconciliation: Psychological pathways to conflict transformation and peace building. (pp. 33-54): New York, NY, US: Springer Science + Business Media.

Enright, R. D., & Fitzgibbons, R. P. (2000). Empirical validation of the process model of forgiveness Helping clients forgive: An empirical guide for resolving anger and restoring hope. (pp. 89-109): Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Enright, R. D. (2012). If you are traumatized. In R. D. Enright, The forgiving life: A pathway to overcoming resentment and creating a legacy of love (pp. 23-38). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Enright, R. D., & Fitzgibbons, R. P. (2000). The process model of forgiveness therapy Helping clients forgive: An empirical guide for resolving anger and restoring hope. (pp. 65-88): Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Enright, R. D., & Fitzgibbons, R. P. (2000). The social-cognitive development of forgiveness Helping clients forgive: An empirical guide for resolving anger and restoring hope. (pp. 53-64): Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Enright, R. D., & Fitzgibbons, R. P. (2000). Forgiveness in psychotherapy: An overview Helping clients forgive: An empirical guide for resolving anger and restoring hope. (pp. 13-27): Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Enright, R. D., & Fitzgibbons, R. P. (2000). Other forgiveness interventions Helping clients forgive: An empirical guide for resolving anger and restoring hope. (pp. 287-304): Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Enright, R. D., & Fitzgibbons, R. P. (2000). Skeptical views of forgiveness Helping clients forgive: An empirical guide for resolving anger and restoring hope. (pp. 267-276): Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Enright, R. D., & Fitzgibbons, R. P. (2000). Forgiveness in personality disorders Helping clients forgive: An empirical guide for resolving anger and restoring hope. (pp. 239-249): Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Enright, R. D., & Fitzgibbons, R. P. (2000). Forgiveness in bipolar and other mental disorders Helping clients forgive: An empirical guide for resolving anger and restoring hope. (pp. 225-237): Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Enright, R. D., & Fitzgibbons, R. P. (2000). Forgiveness in eating disorders Helping clients forgive: An empirical guide for resolving anger and restoring hope. (pp. 215-223): Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Enright, R. D., & Fitzgibbons, R. P. (2000). Forgiveness in anxiety disorders Helping clients forgive: An empirical guide for resolving anger and restoring hope. (pp. 135-154): Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Enright, R. D., & Fitzgibbons, R. P. (2000). Forgiveness in depressive disorders Helping clients forgive: An empirical guide for resolving anger and restoring hope. (pp. 113-133): Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Freedman, S. (2008). Forgiveness education with at-risk adolescents: A case study analysis Women's reflections on the complexities of forgiveness. (pp. 93-119): New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Hargrave, T. D., Froeschle, J., & Castillo, Y. (2009). Forgiveness and spirituality: Elements of healing in relationships Spiritual resources in family therapy (2nd ed.). (pp. 301-322): New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.

Holmgren, M. R. (2002). Forgiveness and self-forgiveness in psychotherapy Before forgiving: Cautionary views of forgiveness in psychotherapy. (pp. 112-135): New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.

Holter, A. C., Magnuson, C. M., & Enright, R. D. (2010). Application and assessment of interpersonal forgiveness Rehabilitation and health assessment: Applying ICF guidelines. (pp. 453-472): New York, NY, US: Springer Publishing Co.

James, K. (2007). The interactional process of forgiveness and responsibility: A critical assessment of the family therapy literature Hope and despair in narrative and family therapy: Adversity, forgiveness and reconciliation. (pp. 127-138): New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Jones, E. (2007). Moving on: Forgiveness, vengeance and reconciliation Hope and despair in narrative and family therapy: Adversity, forgiveness and reconciliation. (pp. 150-160): New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Konstam, V., Marx, F., Schurer, J., Lombardo, N. B. E., & Harrington, A. K. (2002). Forgiveness in practice: What mental health counselors are telling us Before forgiving: Cautionary views of forgiveness in psychotherapy. (pp. 54-71): New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.

Krejci, M. J. (2004). Forgiveness in marital therapy Casebook for a spiritual strategy in counseling and psychotherapy. (pp. 87-102): Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Lamb, S. (2006). Forgiveness therapy in gendered contexts: What happens to the truth? Trauma, truth and reconciliation: Healing damaged relationships. (pp. 229-256): New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.

MacIntosh, H. B., Hall, J., & Johnson, S. M. (2007). Forgive and forget: A comparison of emotionally focused and cognitive-behavioral models of forgiveness and intervention in the context of couple infidelity Infidelity: A practitioner's guide to working with couples in crisis. (pp. 127-147): New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Malcolm, W. (2008). The timeliness of forgiveness interventions Women's reflections on the complexities of forgiveness. (pp. 275-292): New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Patton, J. (2000). Forgiveness in pastoral care and counseling Forgiveness: Theory, research, and practice. (pp. 281-295): New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.

Richards, N. (2002). Forgiveness as therapy Before forgiving: Cautionary views of forgiveness in psychotherapy. (pp. 72-87): New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.

Sesan, R. (2009). Forgiveness: The final frontier in recovery from an eating disorder Effective clinical practice in the treatment of eating disorders: The heart of the matter. (pp. 235-248): New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Sheehan, J. (2007). Forgiveness and the unforgivable: The resurrection of hope in family therapy Hope and despair in narrative and family therapy: Adversity, forgiveness and reconciliation. (pp. 161-172): New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Snyder, D. K., Baucom, D. H., & Gordon, K. C. (2007). Treating infidelity: An integrative approach to resolving trauma and promoting forgiveness Infidelity: A practitioner's guide to working with couples in crisis. (pp. 99-125): New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Thomas, J. M., & Garrod, A. (2002). Forgiveness after genocide? Perspectives from Bosnian youth Before forgiving: Cautionary views of forgiveness in psychotherapy. (pp. 192-211): New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.

Vasiliauskas, S. L., & McMinn, M. R. (2013). The effects of a prayer intervention on the process of forgiveness. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 5(1), 23-32.

Wade, N. G., Post, B. C., & Cornish, M. A. (2011). Forgiveness therapy to treat embitterment: a review of relevant research. In M. Linden & A. Maercker (Eds.), Embitterment: Societal, psychological, and clinical perspectives (pp. 179-207). New York: Springer-Verlag Publishing.

Webb, J. R. (2007). "Spiritual factors and adjustment in medical rehabilitation: Understanding forgiveness as a means of coping" in The psychological and social impact of illness and disability (5th ed.). (pp. 455-471): New York, NY, US: Springer Publishing Co.

Woodyatt, L., & Wenzel, M. (2013). Self-forgiveness and restoration of an offender following an interpersonal transgression. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 32(2), 225-259.

Worthington, E. L., Jr., Davis, D. E., Hook, J. N., Miller, A. J., Gartner, A. L., & Jennings, D. J. II. (2011). Promoting forgiveness as a religious or spiritual intervention. In J. D. Aten, M. R. McMinn, & E. L.Worthington, Jr., Spiritually oriented interventions for counseling and psychotherapy (pp. 169-195). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Worthington, E. L., Jr., Mazzeo, S. E., & Canter, D. E. (2005). Forgiveness-promoting approach: Helping clients REACH forgiveness through using a longer model that teaches reconciliation Spiritually oriented psychotherapy. (pp. 235-257): Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Worthington, E. L., Jr., Sandage, S. J., & Berry, J. W. (2000). Group interventions to promote forgiveness: What researchers and clinicians ought to know Forgiveness: Theory, research, and practice. (pp. 228-253): New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.

Zettle, R. D., Barner, S. L., & Gird, S. (2009). ACT with depression: The role of forgiving Acceptance and commitment therapy: Contemporary theory, research and practice. (pp. 151-173): Bowen Hills, QLD, Australia: Australian Academic Press.

Books:

Bollman, K. L. (1996). Intentional forgiveness: Compassionate approach to counseling  Evergreen Leaves Publishing.

Durham, M. S. (2000). The Therapist's Encounters With Revenge and Forgiveness. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Enright, R. D., & Fitzgibbons, R. P. (2000). Helping clients forgive: An empirical guide for resolving anger and restoring hope: Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Flaskas, C., McCarthy, I., & Sheehan, J. (Eds.). (2007). Hope and Despair in Narrative and Family Therapy: Adversity, Forgiveness and Reconciliation. New York, NY: Routledge.

Hargrave, T. D. (1994). Families and forgiveness: Healing wounds in the intergenerational family: Philadelphia, PA, US: Brunner/Mazel.

Kaupilla, W. (2007). Opening the Door to Freedom with Forgiveness Therapy. Raleigh, NC: lulu.com.

Lamb, S., & Murphy, J. G. (Eds.). (2002). Before forgiving: Cautionary views of forgiveness in psychotherapy: New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.

Leon, C. R., (2011). Factors associated with forgiveness in intimate relationships and the impact of hope-focused marriage therapy. Ann Arbor, MI: Proquest.

Meier, A., & VanKatwyk, P. (2002). The Challenge of Forgiveness (Saint Paul University Series on Pastoral Counselling). Ottawa, ON: Novalis Press.

Ransley, C., & Spy, T. (Eds.). (2004). Forgiveness and the Healing Process: A Central Therapeutic Concern. New York, NY: Routledge.

 

 

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