Detainee Interrogations, Physicians, & Psychologists

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Psychologists' & Physicians' Involvement in Detainee Interrogations

Kenneth S. Pope, Ph.D., ABPP

The issue of psychologists and physicians participating in the planning or implementation of detainee interrogation in settings like the Guantanamo Bay Detainment Camp and the Abu Ghraib prison has sparked continuing controversy, significantly different ethics statements by the various health care associations (e.g., the American Medical Association, the American Psychiatric Association, and the American Psychological Association), and a rich array of thoughtful articles expressing diverse views.

This web page provides citations of over 300 articles, books, and chapters addressing this controversy. It also provides links to a few relevant organizations. Finally, there are some other pages on this web site on ethical standards, the military, and other associated topics (e.g., a page with links to over 100 ethics codes & practice guidelines; resources for U.S. troops, veterans, their families, & those who provide services to them; U.S. & Canadian psychology licensing boards & psychology laws). Links to the general sections appear in the vertical list along the left side of each page of this web site.

Organizations


American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law: www.aapl.org
American Medical Association: www.ama-assn.org
American Psychiatric Association: www.psych.org
American Psychological Association Division 19 Society of Military Psychology: www.apa.org/divisions/div19/about1.html
American Psychological Association: www.apa.org
Psychologists For An Ethical APA: www.ethicalapa.com
Withholding APA Dues: www.withholdapadues.com

Articles, Books, & Chapters:

  1. Abeles, N. (2009). Ethics & the Interrogation of Prisoners. Psychotherapy Bulletin, 44(3), pp. 41-47.
  2. Adler, R. (2007, September 29). Unwitting accomplices in interrogation abuse. New Scientist, issue #2623. Retrieved September 26, 2007, from http://tinyurl.com/6jnqh7
  3. Albernaz, A. (2006, October). Interrogation debate intensifies. New England Psychologist. Retrieved December 5, 2006, from http://tinyurl.com/c73q85.
  4. Allhoff, F. (2006). Physician Involvement in Hostile Interrogations. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 15(4), 392-402.
  5. Altman, N. (2006, November 5). Letter to Dr. Behnke, Dr. Moorehead-Slaughter, and the Entire Ethics Committee regarding proposed moratorium on psychologist involvment in military interrogations. Retrieved September 14, 2007, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/pdfs/correspondencewithressponsor.pdf
  6. Altman, N. (2006, December 25). Letter to Dr. Behnke regarding proposed moratorium on psychologist involvement in military interrogations. Retrieved September 14, 2007, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/pdfs/correspondencewithressponsor.pdf
  7. Altman, N. (2006). Resolution for a Moratorium on Psychologist Participation in Interrogations at US Detention Centers Holding Foreign Detainees, so-called “Enemy Combatants”: Summary and Overview. Retrieved September 1, 2007, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/pdfs/2006moratoriumresolutionsummaryandoverview.pdf
  8. American Academy of Psychiatry & Law. (2006, June 12). Psychiatry Applauds American Medical Association's New Policy Against Physicians Participating in Interrogations. Retrieved September 1, 2007, from http://tinyurl.com/dbdgf5
  9. American Civil Liberties Union. (2008, June 18), ACLU Letter Stating Disagreement with Dr. Steven Behnke about the report that the ACLU had released. Retrieved July 31, 2008, from http://tinyurl.com/6o5grc
  10. American Civil Liberties Union. (2007, August 18). American Civil Liberties Union letter calling on the American Psychological Association (APA) to prohibit its members from participating in coercive interrogations. Retrieved August 22, 2007, from http://www.aclu.org/safefree/torture/31349lgl20070817.html
  11. American Civil Liberties Union. (2008, April 30). Newly Unredacted Report Confirms Psychologists Supported Illegal Interrogations In Iraq and Afghanistan; Documents Obtained By ACLU Also Uncover "Widespread Use" Of Rescinded Unlawful Interrogation Techniques And Failure Of Medical Personnel To Report Abuses. Retrieved May 5, 2008, from http://www.aclu.org/safefree/torture/35111prs20080430.html
  12. American Medical Association, AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. (2006). Statement on interrogation of prisoners. Retrieved July 9, 2006, from http://tinyurl.com/2676d3
  13. American Medical Association. (2006, June 12). New AMA ethical policy opposes direct physician participation in interrogation. Retrieved June 12, 2006, from
    http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/16446.html
  14. American Medical Association. (2006). Physician Participation in Interrogation (Res. 1, I-05), CEJA Report 10-A-06, adopted by the American Medical Assocation. Retrieved October 8, 2007, from www.ama-assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/mm/369/ceja_10a06.pdf
  15. American Medical Association, Chair, Board of Trustees. (2007, December 15). Ethical Treatment of Military Detainees. Lancet, vol. 370, #9604. Retrieved December 14, 2007, from http://tinyurl.com/29q56t
  16. American Psychiatric Association. (2006, May). Psychiatric participation in interrogation of detainees: position statement.
  17. American Psychiatric Association.(2006, June 12). Psychiatry Applauds American Medical Association's New Policy Against Physicians Participating in Interrogations. News release issued by American Psychiatric Association, American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, & American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. Retrieved October 8, 2007, from http://tinyurl.com/2t7yk6
  18. American Psychiatric Association. (2005, June 28). Statement on Psychiatric Practices at Guantanamo Bay. Retrieved June 30, 205, from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/26718.php
  19. American Psychological Association. (2008, September 17). APA Members Approve Petition Resolution on Detainee Settings. (APA Press Release). Retrieved September 17, 2008, from http://www.apa.org/releases/petition0908.html
  20. American Psychological Association. (2007, August 20). APA calls on U.S. government to prohibit the use of unethical interrogation techniques (APA Press Release). Retrieved August 21, 2007, from http://www.apa.org/releases/councilres0807.html
  21. American Psychological Association. (2007, September 23). Frequently Asked Questions Regarding APA's Policies And Positions On The Use Of Torture Or Cruel, Inhuman Or Degrading Treatment During Interrogations. Press release. Retrieved September 26, 2007, from http://www.apa.org/releases/faqinterrogation.html
  22. American Psychological Association. (2008, July 28). Petition on Psychologists’ Work Settings: Questions and Answers. Retrieved September 15, 2008, from http://www.apa.org/governance/resolutions/qa-work-settings.html
  23. American Psychological Association. (2006, August 10). Psychologists reaffirm “do no harm” guideline and strict prohibition against torture and all cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment for work in all national security interrogations. Press release. Retrieved August 14, 2006, from http://www.apa.org/releases/interrogations06.html
  24. American Psychological Association. (2007, August 19). Reaffirmation of the American Psychological Association Position Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and Its Application to Individuals Defined in the United States Code as “Enemy Combatants.” Retrieved September 15, 2007, from http://www.apa.org/governance/resolutions/councilres0807.html
  25. American Psychological Association. (2006, August 9). Resolution Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Retrieved September 5, 2006, from http://www.apa.org/governance/resolutions/notortureres.html
  26. American Psychological Association. (2007, September 19). Statement on behalf of the American Psychological Association submitted to the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence: Psychology & Interrogations. Retrieved October 29, 2007, from http://tinyurl.com/26t662
  27. American Psychological Association. (2008, January 14). Statement on behalf of the  American Psychological Association & California Psychological Association before the Committee on Business, Professions and Economic Development California State Senate For a Hearing on Torture and Health Professionals. Retrieved January 18, 2008, from http://www.cpapsych.org
  28. American Psychological Association Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest. (2007, April 26). Memorandum to Ethics Committee recommending rejecting proposed moratorium on psychologist participation in detainee interrogations. Retrieived September 14, 2007, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/pdfs/0806CRresolutiongovernancefeedback0507.pdf
  29. American Psychological Association Board of Educational Affairs, Education Directorate. (2007, April 16). Memorandum to Dr. Stephen Behnke, Director, Ethics Office, requesting information on the proposed moratorium on psychologist participation in detainee interrogations. Retrieived September 14, 2007, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/pdfs/0806CRresolutiongovernancefeedback0507.pdf
  30. American Psychological Association Board of Professional Affairs. (2007, April 23). Memorandum to Dr. Stephen Behnke, Director, Ethics Office, from Mary G. Hardiman, M.S., Director of Board Operations, Practice Research & Policy, Practice Directorate: Unapproved minute from the Board of Professional Affairs Spring 2007 meeting, March 23-25, recommending withdrawal or rejection of the proposed moratorium on psychologist participation in detainee interrogations. Retrieived September 14, 2007, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/pdfs/0806CRresolutiongovernancefeedback0507.pdf
  31. American Psychological Association Committee for the Advancement of Professional Practice. (2007, April 30). Memorandum to Dr. Stephen Behnke, Director, Ethics Office, recommending that the proposed moratorium on psychologist participation in detainee interrogations be rejected. Retrieived September 14, 2007, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/pdfs/0806CRresolutiongovernancefeedback0507.pdf
  32. American Psychological Association Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs. (2007, April 23). Memorandum to Dr. Stephen Behnke, Director, Ethics Office, recommending that the proposed moratorium on psychologist participation in detainee interrogations be returned to its movers. Retrieived September 14, 2007, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/pdfs/0806CRresolutiongovernancefeedback0507.pdf
  33. American Psychological Association Committee on Legal Issues. (2007, April 25). Memorandum to Dr. Stephen Behnke, Director, Ethics Office, expressing strong objections to the proposed moratorium on psychologist participation in detainee interrogations in its current form. Retrieived September 14, 2007, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/pdfs/0806CRresolutiongovernancefeedback0507.pdf
  34. American Psychological Association Committee on Legal Issues. (2007, May 3). Memorandum to Dr. Stephen Behnke, Director, Ethics Office, stating that "psychologists practicing in U.S. detention centers holding foreign detainees have been given clear, conistent, and unambiguous guidance from U.S. law, international law, and APA policy with regard to those behaviors that are deemed unacceptable, illegal, and unethical in those contexts"; that COLI "does not believe that Council resolutions are the appropriate place to make political statements"; and that adopting the proposed moratorium on psychologist participation in detainee interrogations "would set a precedent that would have sinificant negative repercussions for the Association in the future." Retrieived September 14, 2007, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/pdfs/0806CRresolutiongovernancefeedback0507.pdf
  35. American Psychological Association Division 19 (Society for Military Psychology). Comments on the Draft APA Council Resolution “Moratorium on Psychologist Involvement in Interrogations at US Detention Centers for Foreign Detainees”. (2007). Retrieved September 10, 2007, from www.apa.org/ethics/pdfs/div19response.pdf
  36. American Psychological Association Ethics Committee. (2007, June 8-10). Board of Directors Adenda Item #4: Recommendation to reject proposed moratorium on psychologist involvement in detainee interrogations. Retrieved September 14, 2007, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/pdfs/ethicsresolutionBD0511fin.pdf
  37. "American Psychological Association Presidential Task Force on Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) Members' Biographical Statements." Retrieved October 6, 2007, from http://www.webster.edu/peacepsychology/tfpens.html
  38. Annas, G. J. (2005). Unspeakably Cruel - Torture, Medical Ethics, and the Law. New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 352, pp. 2127-2132.
  39. Arboleda-Florez, J. (2006, June). Forensic psychiatry: contemporary scope, challenges and controversies. World  Psychiatry, pp. 87-91.
  40. "APA Council Takes Further Action on No-Torture, No Exceptions Policy." (2008, April). APA Monitor on Psychology.
  41. Arrigo, J. M. (2006). Psychological Torture--The CIA and the APA. PsycCRITIQUES, 51.
  42. Arrigo, J. M., & DeBatto, D. (2008, March 19). An Intelligence Perspective onthe February 22, 2008, APA Modification of the August 19, 2007, APA Resolution on Reaffirmation of the American Psychological Association Position Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and Its Application to Individuals Defined in the United States Code as “Enemy Combatants.” Retrieved March 20, 2008, from http://tinyurl.com/2p5672
  43. Arrigo, J. M., & Bennett, R. (2007). Organizational Supports for Abusive Interrogations in “The War on Terror.” Peace and Conflict, vol. 13, #4, pp. 411-421.
  44. Baroch, A. (2005, December 12). Medical Experts Debate Ethics of Military Interrogations. Voice of America. Retrieved December 18, 2005, from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/news/2005/12/mil-051212-voa05.htm
  45. Beam, T.E., & Sparacino, L.R. (eds.) (2003). Military medical ethics. Washington, DC.: Office of the Surgeon General.
  46. Behan, C. W. (2007). Bioethics and Armed Conflict: Moral Dilemmas of Medicine and War. Journal of Legal Medicine, 28(1), 163-169.
  47. Behnke, S. H. (2007, November 22). APA Responds: Letter from Stephen Behnke, J.D., Ph.D., Director of Ethics, American Psychological Association. Harpers. Retrieved November 24, 2007, at http://harpers.org/subjects/NoComment
  48. Behnke, S. H. (2008, September 1). Detainee Interrogations: American Psychological Association Counters, but Questions Remain. Psychiatric Times, vol. 25, #10, pp. 54, 58-59. Retrieved September 12, 2008, from http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/display/article/10168/1285473
  49. Behnke, S. H. (2006, August). Ethics and interrogations: Comparing and contrasting the American Psychological, American Medical and American Psychiatric Association positions. Monitor on Psychology, 37(7), 66.
  50. Behnke, S. H. (2006, November 1). Letter to Dr. Neil Altman regarding propose moratorium on psychologist involvement in detainee interrogations. Retrieved September 14, 2007, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/pdfs/correspondencewithressponsor.pdf
  51. Behnke, S. H. (2006, December 22). Letter to Dr. Neil Altman regardingproposed moratorium on psychologist involvement in detainee interrogations. Retrieved September 14, 2007, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/pdfs/correspondencewithressponsor.pdf
  52. Behnke, S. H. (2007, Fall). Letters to the Editor III : An Open Letter From Stephen Behnke. Psychologist-Psychoanalyst, vol. 27, #4.
  53. Behnke, S. H. (2006). Professional Associations and the Ethics of Interrogation. PsycCRITIQUES, 51(30).
  54. Behnke, S. H. (2006). Psychological Ethics and National Security: The Position of the American Psychological Association. European Psychologist, 11(2), 153-155.
  55. Behnke, S. H. (2008, January 14). Statement on behalf of the  American Psychological Association & California Psychological Association Before the Committee on Business, Professions and Economic Development California State Senate For a Hearing on Torture and Health Professionals. Retrieved January 18, 2008, from http://www.cpapsych.org
  56. Behnke, S. H. & Koocher, G .P. (2007). Commentary on "Psychologists and the Use of Torture in Interrogations." Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy. Retrieved August 1, 2007, from http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/asap/0/0.
  57. Benjamin, M. (2007, June 21). The CIA's torture teachers: Psychologists helped the CIA exploit a secret military program to develop brutal interrogation tactics. Salon. Retrieved July 28, 2007, from http://tinyurl.com/yqax7r
  58. Benjamin, M. (2007, August 21). Will psychologists still abet torture? Salon. Retrieved September 10, 2007, from http://tinyurl.com/25kxh7
  59. Benveniste, P. (2007, October 16). Debating involvement in torture. Glens Falls [NY] Post-Star. Retrieved October 16, 2007, from http://tinyurl.com/2vr7mo
  60. Beyrer, C. (2003, August 6). Review of Dual Loyalty and Human Rights in Health Professional Practice: Proposed Guidelines and Institutional Mechanisms. Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 290, #5. Retrieved March 5, 2006, from http://tinyurl.com/32npwg
  61. Blachar, Y., & Borow, M. (2009). Health professionals and dual loyalty: A World Medical Association perspective and Israeli Medical Association perspective. Chapter in Goodman, R. & Roseman, M.J. (Eds.). Interrogations, Forced Feedings, and the Role of Health Professionals: New Perspectives on International Human Rights, Humanitarian Law and Ethics (Harvard Law School Human Rights Program series), pp. 173-185. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  62. Bloche, M. G., & Marks, J. H. (2005). Doctors and interrogations. New England Journal of Medicine, 352, p. 1634.
  63. Bloche, M. G., & Marks, J. H. (2005). Doctors and Interrogators at Guantanamo Bay. New England Journal of Medicine, 353(1), 6-8.
  64. Bloche, M. G., & Marks, J. H. (2005, February 4). Triage at Abu Ghraib. New York Times. Retrieved February 4, 2005) at
    http://www.nytimes.com/2005/02/04/opinion/04bloche.html
  65. Bloche, M. G., & Marks, J. H. (2005). When Doctors Go to War. New England Journal of Medicine, 352(1), 3-6.
  66. Bloche, M. G., Marks, J. H., Falk, R., Gendzier, I., & Lifton, R. J. (2006). Doctors and Interrogators at Guantanamo Bay. In Crimes of War: Iraq. (pp. 345-349): Nation Books: New York.
  67. Blumner, R. (2007, October 14). Psychologists, torture and the rules. St. Petersberg Times. Retrieved October 14, 2007, from http://tinyurl.com/2a6ewh
  68. Bond, T. (2006, August 23). APA Confab Whitewashes Torture by Shrinks. Counterpunch. Retrieved February 14, 2007, from http://www.counterpunch.org/bond08232006.html
  69. Bond, T. (2008, February 12). The Elephant at Gitmo. Counterpunch. Retrieved February 20, 2008, from http://www.counterpunch.org/bond02122008.html
  70. Bond, T. (2008, August 7). Fixing Hell and Curing Obesity: The Strange, Post-Gitmo Career of Col. Larry James. Counterpunch. http://www.counterpunch.org/bond08072008.html
  71. Bosch, T. (2007, August 21). Torture shrinks: What does a psychologist do at a detainee interrogation? Slate. Retrieved August 21, 2007, from http://www.slate.com/id/2172549/
  72. Boston Globe. (2008, August 30). Boston Globe Editorial: Psychologists and Torture. Retrieved August 30, 2008, from http://tinyurl.com/5qhtf2
  73. Brehm, S. (2007, September 5). American Psychological Association President's message encouraging the APA Council of Representatives to circulate Dr. Olivia Moorehead-Slaughter's response to Dr. Jean Maria Arrigo and Amy Goodman. Retrieved September 23, 2007, from http://tinyurl.com/2n9teh
  74. Brehm, S. (2007, January 9). American Psychological Association news release of letter from the APA president to the editor of Washington Monthly. Retrieved March 20, 2007, from www.apa.org/releases/washingtonmonthly.pdf
  75. Burns-Cox, C., Halpin, D., Frost, C., & Hall, P. (2007, December 15). Ethical treatment of military detainees. Lancet, vol. 370, #9604, pp. 1999-2000. Retrieved December 14, 2007, from http://tinyurl.com/2gh64x
  76. Burton, M., & Kagan, C. (2007, August). Psychologists and torture: More than a question of interrogation. The Psychologist, vol. 20, #8, pp. 484-487.
  77. California Psychological Association. (2008, January 14). Statement on behalf of the  American Psychological Association & California Psychological Association Before the Committee on Business, Professions and Economic Development California State Senate For a Hearing on Torture and Health Professionals. Retrieved January 18, 2008, from http://www.cpapsych.org
  78. Carter, L. A., & Abeles, N. (2009). Ethics, prisoner interrogation, national security, and the media. Psychological Services, 6(1), pp. 11-21.
  79. Carvel, J. (2004, August 20). Abu Ghraib doctors knew of torture, says Lancet report. The Guardian. Retrieved August 20, 2004, from
    http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,1287158,00.html
  80. Chen, P. (2007, December 4). Dissent to "We Should Stand By Sharon Brehm." Indiana Daily Student News. Retrieved December 4, 2007, from
    http://www.idsnews.com/news/story.aspx?id=46609&comview=1
  81. Civiello, C. L. (2009). Introduction to the special issue on organizational consulting in national security contexts. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice & Research, 61(1), pp. 1-4.
  82. Clark, P. A. (2006). Medical Ethics at Guantanamo Bay and Abu Ghraib: The Problem of Dual Loyalty. Journal of Law & Medical Ethics, 34(3), 570-580.
  83. Coalition for an Ethical APA [American Psychological Association]. (2008, January). Analysis of the American Psychological Association's Frequently Asked Questions Regarding APA's Policies and Positions on the Use of Torture or Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment During Interrogations. Retrieved January 18, 2008, from http://tinyurl.com/ys3fjy
  84. Coalition for an Ethical APA [American Psychological Association]. (2008, February 6.) Coaltion for An Ethical APA on Ridley-Thomas California health providers out of interrogations bill. Retrieved February 6, 2008, from http://tinyurl.com/2umm2t
  85. Coalition for an Ethical APA [American Psychological Association]. (2007, September 19). Letter to APA President Brehm responding to attacks on Jean Marie Arrigo. Retrieved September 20, 2007, from http://tinyurl.com/2thslt
  86. Cohen, P. (2007, December 22). Scholars and the Military Share a Foxhole, Uneasily. New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2007, from http://www.nytimes.com
  87. Cohen, S. P. (2005). Doctors and Interrogation, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 353, pp. 1633-1634.
  88. Colley, J. (2006). Providing Care for Detainees. The Journal of Muslim Mental Health, 1(2), 205-212.
  89. Costanzo, M., Gerrity, E., & Lykes, M.B. (2007). Psychologists and the Use of Torture in Interrogations. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy. Retrieved August 1, 2007, from
    http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/asap/0/0.
  90. Curiel, J. (2007, August 20). Psychologists oppose torture yet vote to attend terror interrogations. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 20, 2007, from http://tinyurl.com/3d2fto
  91. DeClue, G. (2006). Review of A Question of Torture: CIA Interrogation, From the Cold War to the War on Terror. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 34, 381-385.
  92. Democracy New. (2007, August 29). "'The APA Has Long Been a Clan' - Psychologist, Author Mary Pipher Returns APA Award over Interrogation Policy." Democracy Now. Retrieved September 4, 2007, from
    http://www.indybay.org/newsitems/2007/08/29/18444529.php
  93. Dokecki, P. (2007, November 19). Letter of resignation from the American Psychological Association because of interrogation/torture policy. Retrieved December 11, 2007, from http://tinyurl.com/2fl6fz
  94. Donner, M. (2006, January/February). Healing the mind or breaking the spirit: The role of psychology during Interrogations. California Psychologist, 20-21.
  95. Dyer, O. (2007, September 15). U.S. medical authorities are accused of failing to act over doctors in Guantanamo. British Medical Journal, vol. 335, #7619, p. 530. Retrieved September 15, 2007, from http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/335/7619/530-a
  96. Eban, K. (2007, July 17). Rorschach and awe: America's coercive interrogation methods were reverse-engineered by two C.I.A. psychologists. Vanity Fair. Retrieved July 18, 2007, from http://tinyurl.com/2zkg9p
  97. Egelko, B. (2007, August 18). Psychologists' feud over aiding military interrogators coming to a head. San Francisco Chronicle.
  98. EMAIL MESSAGES FROM THE LISTERV OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATIONS PRESIDENTIAL TASK FORCE ON PSYCHOLOGICAL ETHICS AND NATIONAL SECURITY: APRIL 22, 2005 - JUNE 26, 2006. Retrieved May 7, 2009, from http://s3.amazonaws.com/propublica/assets/docs/pens_listserv.pdf
  99. Ephron, D. (2008, October 27). Biscuit Breaker: Psychologist Steven Reisner has embarked on a crusade
    to get his colleagues out of the business of interrogations. Newsweek. Retrieved October 27, 2008, from http://www.newsweek.com/id/164497.
  100. Estés, Clarissa Pinkola. (2007, December 8). Torture: Did the American Psychological Association Collude With Torture of Human Beings? The Moderate Voice. Retrieved December 9, 2007, from http://tinyurl.com/2qqgd2
  101. "Ethicist questions medical workers' role in abuse; Abu Ghraib should be 'wake-up call for the Western world.'" (2004, August 19). CNN. Retrieved August 19, 2004, from
    http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/meast/08/19/doctors.torture
  102. Ex-APA Head Involved in Torture-Linked Firm. (2007, August 15). Democracy Now. Retrieved September 1, 2007, from http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=07/08/15/1432240
  103. Falk, R., & Gendzier, I. (Eds.). (2006). Crimes of war: Iraq. New York: Nation Books.
  104. Falk, R., Gendzier, I., & Lifton, R. J. (2006). Break Them Down: Systematic Use of Psychological Torture by U.S. Forces. In Crimes of War: Iraq. (pp. 350-361): Nation Books: New York.
  105. Fallenbaum, R. (2007, August 18). Psychologists Protest Professional Association Over Ethics. Berkeley Daily Planet. Retrieved August 18, 2007 from http://www.berkeleydailyplanet.com.
  106. Farberman, R. (2008, August 17). Psychological association, its members oppose torture. Letter to the editor. Boston Globe.
  107. Farberman, R. (2005). "Stain on medical ethics": Comment. Lancet, 366(9487), 712.
  108. Fink, S. (2009, May 6). The reluctant enablers of torture. Salon. Retrieved May 6, 2009, from http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2009/05/05/torture/
  109. Fink, S. (2009, May 5). Tortured Profession: Psychologists Warned of Abusive Interrogations, Then Helped Craft Them. Pro Publica: Journalism in the Public Interest. Retrieved May 6, 2009, from http://tinyurl.com/csjx6e.
  110. Finn, B. (2009, May 2). Detainees Omitted from American Psychological Association Ethics Code: Commentary on "Contrasting ethical policies of physicians and psychologists concerning interrogation of detainees." British Medical Journal. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/338/apr30_2/b1653
  111. Gelles, M. G. (2007, March 14). Letter to Drs. Neil Altman & Olivia Moorehead-Slaughter regarding proposed moratorium on psychologist involvement in military interrogations. Retrieved September 14, 2007, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/pdfs/gellesletter.pdf
  112. Gill, R.E. (2007, September/October). Role of psychologists at detention centers approved. National Psychologist, vol. 1, #5, pp. 1-2.
  113. Glass, A. R. (2004, October 7). Doctors and torture. New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, #15. Retrieved October 7, 2004, from
    http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/351/15/1571
  114. Glenn, D. (2007, September 4, 2007). A policy on torture roils psychologists' annual meeting; Critics say a new resolution allows mistreatment of prisoners. Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved September 4, 2007, from http://chronicle.com
  115. Glenn, D. (2008, September 18). Psychological Association Votes to Restrict Work at Certain Detention Centers. Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved September 18, 2008, from http://tinyurl.com/47nrtn
  116. Glenn, D. (2007, October 12). Resolutions Urge Psychology Assn. to Take Tougher Stand on Interrogating Prisoners. Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved October 12, 2007, from http://chronicle.com
  117. Goldacre, B. (2008, February 23). Ticking the boxes before trying to save lives. U.K. Guardian. Retrieved February 24, 2008, from http://tinyurl.com/ytk5a6
  118. Goldstein, J. (2008, September 18). Psychology Group Changes Policy on Interrogations. New York Sun. Retrieved September 18, 2008, from http://tinyurl.com/4yhqzf
  119. Goodman, A. (2007, August 20). APA Interrogation Task Force Member Dr. Jean Maria Arrigo Exposes Group’s Ties to Military. Retrieved September 10, 2007, from http://tinyurl.com/4dt8zo.
  120. Goodman, A. (2007, August 20). APA Members Hold Fiery Town Hall Meeting on Interrogation, Torture. Retrieved December 1, 2007, from http://tinyurl.com/2ze5sz
  121. Goodman, A. (2007, November 26). Leaked Guantanamo Military Operating Manual Reveals Isolation, Sensory Deprivation Was Official Army Policy to Break Prisoners. Democracy Now. Retrieved November 29, 2007, from http://tinyurl.com/2y9dcg
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