Resilience Studies Published in 2012

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104 Recent Studies of Resilience

Ken Pope, Ph.D., ABPP

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The purpose of the web page is to help clinicians, researchers, and others to keep abreast of the evolving research on resilience.

The following list provides the citations for and excerpts from 104 studies of resilience published in 2012:

  1. Anderson, K. M. and E. J. Bang (2012). "Assessing PTSD and resilience for females who during childhood were exposed to domestic violence." Child & Family Social Work 17(1): 55-65.

    "This study examined 68 females, who as children were exposed to domestic violence, to explore childhood risk and protective factors and their relationship to adult levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and resilience. Independent sample t-tests indicated significant differences in PTSD levels between participants with and without police involvement during childhood. There were also significant differences in PTSD levels between participants who reported their mothers had mental-health problems with those who did not. Additionally, participants whose mothers had full-time steady employment had significantly higher resilience than those with mothers who did not work or worked inconsistently."

  2. Arnold, S. E., N. Louneva, et al. (2012). "Cellular, synaptic, and biochemical features of resilient cognition in Alzheimer's disease." Neurobiology of Aging (in press).

    "The [Alzheimer's Disease]-Resilient group exhibited preserved densities of synaptophysin-labeled presynaptic terminals and synaptopodin-labeled dendritic spines compared with the AD-Dementia group, and increased densities of glial fibrillary acidic protein astrocytes compared with both the AD-Dementia and Normal Comparison groups. Further, in a discovery-type antibody microarray protein analysis, we identified a number of candidate protein abnormalities that were associated with a particular diagnostic group."

  3. Baker, D. G., W. P. Nash, et al. (2012). "Predictors of risk and resilience for posttraumatic stress disorder among ground combat Marines: methods of the Marine Resiliency Study." Preventing Chronic Disease 9: E97.

    "The Marine Resiliency Study (MRS) is a prospective study of factors predictive of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among approximately 2,600 Marines in 4 battalions deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan.... The CHAMPS database showed that 7.4% of the Marines enrolled in MRS had at least 1 mental health diagnosis. Of enrolled Marines, approximately half (51.3%) had prior deployments. We found a moderate positive relationship between deployment history and PTSD prevalence in these baseline data."

  4. Bartone, P. T., S. W. Hystad, et al. (2012). "Psychological hardiness and coping style as risk/resilience factors for alcohol abuse." Mil Med 177(5): 517-524.

    "Results show that low hardiness and high avoidance coping are significant predictors of alcohol abuse. Also, the challenge facet of hardiness predicts risk of alcohol abuse among respondents with recent deployment experience, and this effect is greater for those with harsh deployment experiences. Older defense workers are also at higher risk, suggesting cumulative occupational stress may take a toll. This research indicates that hardiness and avoidance coping measures may serve as useful adjunct screening tools for alcohol abuse in the military."

  5. Bensimon, M. (2012). "Elaboration on the association between trauma, PTSD and posttraumatic growth: The role of trait resilience." Personality and Individual Differences 52(7): 782-787.

    "This study elaborates prior research by casting resilience as a trait rather than state.... Trauma increased PTSD and growth levels, whereas resilience was associated positively with growth and negatively with PTSD."

  6. Bonanno, G. A., P. Kennedy, et al. (2012). "Trajectories of resilience, depression, and anxiety following spinal cord injury." Rehabilitation Psychology 57(3): 236-247.

    "Analyses for depression and anxiety symptoms revealed 3 similar latent classes: a resilient pattern of stable low symptoms, a pattern of high symptoms followed by improvement (recovery), and delayed symptom elevations. A chronic high depression pattern also emerged but not a chronic high anxiety pattern.... Resilient patients had fewer SCI-related quality of life problems, more challenge appraisals and fewer threat appraisals, greater acceptance and fighting spirit, and less coping through social reliance and behavioral disengagement.... Overall, the majority of SCI patients demonstrated considerable psychological resilience. Models for depression and anxiety evidenced a pattern of elevated symptoms followed by improvement and a pattern of delayed symptoms. Chronic high depression was also observed but not chronic high anxiety. Analyses of predictors were consistent with the hypothesis that resilient individuals view major stressors as challenges to be accepted and met with active coping efforts."

  7. Bonanno, G. A., A. D. Mancini, et al. (2012). "Trajectories of trauma symptoms and resilience in deployed US military service members: Prospective cohort study." The British Journal of Psychiatry 200(4): 317-323.

    "The sample consisted of US military service members in all branches including active duty, reserve and national guard who deployed once...or multiple times.... Each analysis revealed remarkably similar post-traumatic stress trajectories across time. The most common pattern was low–stable post-traumatic stress or resilience (83.1% single deployers, 84.9% multiple deployers), moderate–improving (8.0%, 8.5%), then worsening–chronic post-traumatic stress (6.7%, 4.5%), high–stable (2.2% single deployers only) and high–improving (2.2% multiple deployers only)."

  8. Braga, L. L., M. F. Mello, et al. (2012). "Transgenerational transmission of trauma and resilience: a qualitative study with Brazilian offspring of Holocaust survivors." BMC Psychiatry 12(1): 134.

    "In-depth individual interviews were conducted with fifteen offspring of Holocaust survivors and sought to analyze experiences, meanings and subjective processes of the participants.... Not only traumatic experiences, but also resilience patterns can be transmitted to and developed by the second generation."

  9. Brodie, P. J. and C. Eppler (2012). "Exploration of perceived stressors, communication, and resilience in law-enforcement couples." Journal of Family Psychotherapy 23(1): 20-41.

    "This study explored how law-enforcement officers and their significant others perceive the resources that have helped them be resilient with stress and other identified challenges, and how couples communicate about these issues.... The resultant grounded theory model, identified as Negotiating Job Stress Through Adaptive Caring, incorporated participants' recognition of stressors, self-awareness, understanding of self in intimate relationships, and engagement of coping strategies. Findings fill a significant gap in prior research by exploring the relational experiences of couples' coping, resiliency, and communication in the law-enforcement community."

  10. Bromand, Z., S. Temur-Erman, et al. (2012). "Mental health of Turkish women in Germany: Resilience and risk factors." European Psychiatry 27(Suppl 2): S17-S21.

    "Protective factors such as extraversion and self-efficacy seem to have a buffering effect on the process of migration. However, in addition to neuroticism, social strain seems to be positively associated with mental distress"

  11. Brown, O. and J. Robinson (2012). "Resilience in remarried families." South African Journal of Psychology 42(1): 114-126.

    "Family hardiness, problem-solving communication, and family time and routines showed a positive correlation with the FACI8 for both adults and adolescents; while acquiring social support, a subscale of the F-COPES showed a positive correlation with the FACI8 for the adults, and social support as measured by the SSI showed a positive correlation for the adolescents. The results of the qualitative component of the study revealed that various common themes emerged between the adult and adolescent participants' responses. These themes included spirituality, boundaries, communication, flexibility, and tolerance."

  12. Carlson, J. M., G. N. Dikecligil, et al. (2012). "Trait reappraisal is associated with resilience to acute psychological stress." Journal of Research in Personality (in press).

    "Our findings that trait reappraisal is negatively correlated with stress reactivity as measured by cortisol, heart rate, and self-report state anxiety, but positively correlated with self-report state euphoria suggest that individuals high in trait reappraisal are more stress resilient."

  13. Cheung, C.-k. and X. D. Yue (2012). "Sojourn students' humor styles as buffers to achieve resilience." International Journal of Intercultural Relations 36(3): 353-364.

    "Resilience, which means adjustment under stress, is crucial for sojourn students, who are likely to experience acculturative stress. One possible way of upholding adjustment and resilience is the students' humor practice. Essentially, such practice is possibly able to buffer the stress to achieve resilience. The possibility is the focus of the present study of 215 students coming from Mainland China to study in a university in Hong Kong. Results show that the study and cultural aspects of acculturative stress were most harmful to the student's adjustment. Furthermore, the student's affiliative humor style was most vital in sustaining adjustment and accomplishing resilience under various kinds of stress. These results highlight the merit of affiliation as a principal salutogenic factor derived from humor."

  14. Choe, D. E., M. A. Zimmerman, et al. (2012). "Youth violence in South Africa: Exposure, attitudes, and resilience in Zulu adolescents." Violence and Victims 27(2): 166-181.

    "Victimization, witnessing violence, and friends' violent behavior contributed directly to violent behavior. Only family conflict and friends' violence influenced violent attitudes. Attitudes mediated effects of friends' violence on violent behavior. Multiple-group SEM indicated that adult involvement fit a protective model of resilience."

  15. Cicchetti, D. and F. A. Rogosch (2012). "Gene×Environment interaction and resilience: Effects of child maltreatment and serotonin, corticotropin releasing hormone, dopamine, and oxytocin genes." Development and Psychopathology 24(2): 411-427.

    "In a series of analyses of covariance, child maltreatment demonstrated a strong negative main effect on children's resilient functioning, whereas no main effects for any of the genotypes of the respective genes were found. However, gene–environment interactions involving genotypes of each of the respective genes and maltreatment status were obtained. For each respective gene, among children with a specific genotype, the relative advantage in resilient functioning of nonmaltreated compared to maltreated children was stronger than was the case for nonmaltreated and maltreated children with other genotypes of the respective gene. Across the four genes, a composite of the genotypes that more strongly differentiated resilient functioning between nonmaltreated and maltreated children provided further evidence of genetic variations influencing resilient functioning in nonmaltreated children, whereas genetic variation had a negligible effect on promoting resilience among maltreated children. Additional effects were observed for children based on the number of subtypes of maltreatment children experienced, as well as for abuse and neglect subgroups. Finally, maltreated and nonmaltreated children with high levels of resilience differed in their average number of differentiating genotypes. These results suggest that differential resilient outcomes are based on the interaction between genes and developmental experiences."

  16. Cutuli, J. J., C. D. Desjardins, et al. (2012). "Academic Achievement Trajectories of Homeless and Highly Mobile Students: Resilience in the Context of Chronic and Acute Risk." Child Dev.

    "Analyses examined academic achievement data across third through eighth grades (N = 26,474), comparing students identified as homeless or highly mobile (HHM) with other students in the federal free meal program (FM), reduced price meals (RM), or neither (General). Achievement was lower as a function of rising risk status (General > RM > FM > HHM). Achievement gaps appeared stable or widened between HHM students and lower risk groups. Math and reading achievement were lower, and growth in math was slower in years of HHM identification, suggesting acute consequences of residential instability. Nonetheless, 45% of HHM students scored within or above the average range, suggesting academic resilience."

  17. Daniels, J. K., K. M. Hegadoren, et al. (2012). "Neural correlates and predictive power of trait resilience in an acutely traumatized sample: a pilot investigation." J Clin Psychiatry 73(3): 327-332.

    "We conducted a prospective study with 70 acutely traumatized subjects with DSM-IV PTSD recruited at the emergency department, assessing PTSD symptom severity at 3 time points within the first 3 months posttrauma. Scores for childhood trauma as assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and trait resilience as assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale were used as predictors of symptom severity. A subsample of 12 subjects additionally underwent a functional 4 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan 2 to 4 months posttrauma. We employed the traumatic script-driven imagery paradigm to assess the correlations between trait resilience and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response.... Resilience predicted PTSD symptom severity at 5 to 6 weeks (beta = -0.326, P = .01) as well as at 3 months (beta = -0.423, P = .003) posttrauma better than childhood trauma. Resilience essentially mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and posttraumatic adjustment. Resilience scores were positively correlated with BOLD signal strength in the right thalamus as well as the inferior and middle frontal gyri (Brodmann area 47)."

  18. Davidson, J., Stein, D. J., et al. (2012). "Resilience as a predictor of treatment response in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder treated with venlafaxine extended release or placebo." Journal of Psychopharmacology 26(6): 778-783.

    "In total, pretreatment resilience predicted a positive treatment response. For the overall population, all versions of the CD-RISC predicted CAPS-SX?? change scores and remission after controlling for variables such as treatment group and baseline symptom severity. For venlafaxine ER-treated patients, all versions of the CD-RISC were predictive of remission, but only the 10-item version was predictive of CAPS-SX?? change score. Our results suggest that higher pretreatment resilience is generally associated with a positive treatment response."

  19. de Guzman, A. B., Tan, E. L. C., et al. (2012). "Self-concept, disposition, and resilience of poststroke Filipino elderly with residual paralysis." Educational Gerontology 38(6): 429-442.

    "The respondents' self-concept surfaced two themes: relationality and corporeality. Disposition was described as both phylogenetic and ontogenetic, and resilience was shown to arise from both conviction and condition. These six themes collectively describe residual paralysis as a hyperbolic experience. On the whole, poststroke Filipino elderly with residual paralysis demonstrate major changes in these three variables poststroke. In these situations, Filipino elderly commonly based their self-concept on their relationships with others, their disposition on their innate feelings, and their resilience on the measures they have taken to accept and to cope with the chronic effects of stroke."

  20. Deb, A. and M. Arora (2012). "Resilience and academic achievement among adolescents." Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology 38(1): 93-101.

    "This investigation is an attempt to study resilience in adolescents preparing for Engineering/Medical Entrance Examinations.... The results revealed that individuals reporting high resilience showed better academic performance as compared to those perceiving themselves to be low on resilience. Males scored higher on resilience and performed better in competitive examinations than females did. A major finding of this study was that the chances of HR adolescents being successful in competitive examinations was found to be 120% greater than that of LR adolescents Future researches are required to understand better, the role of resilience in academic performance which in turn may help adolescents to navigate through important educational transitional points in their lives."

  21. Fantuzzo, J., W. LeBoeuf, et al. (2012). "Academic achievement of african american boys: A city-wide, community-based investigation of risk and resilience." Journal of School Psychology (in press).

    "In light of persistent Black–White achievement gaps for boys, this study examined publicly monitored risks believed to be associated with being behind academically for an entire subpopulation of African American boys in a large urban public school district. Also examined were indicators of academic engagement hypothesized to mediate the relations between risks and low achievement. Findings indicated that the Black–White achievement gap for boys was matched by a comparable difference in risk experiences. Multilevel linear regression models controlling for poverty found that both the type and accumulation of risk experiences explained a significant amount of variation in reading and mathematics achievement for the subpopulation of African American boys. Socio-familial risks were related to the poorest academic outcomes. Academic engagement indicators significantly mediated relations between risks and achievement."

  22. Fauci, A. J., M. Bonciani, et al. (2012). "Quality of life, vulnerability and resilience: a qualitative study of the tsunami impact on the affected population of Sri Lanka." Ann Ist Super Sanita 48(2): 177-188.

    "The analysis shows that each factor involved in the interplay among the different processes that produced the changes in the affected people's quality of life is at the same time a damaged asset, a vulnerability factor and a resource to draw upon for coping."

  23. Fenning, R. M. and J. K. Baker (2012). "Mother–child interaction and resilience in children with early developmental risk." Journal of Family Psychology 26(3): 411-420.

    "Maternal technical scaffolding and dyadic pleasure each uniquely predicted reduced likelihood of later ID [Intellectual Disability], beyond the contributions of children's early developmental level and behavioral functioning. Follow-up analyses suggested that mother–child interaction was primarily important to resilience in the area of adaptive behavior, with scaffolding and dyadic pleasure differentially associated with particular subdomains."

  24. Foran, H. M., A. B. Adler, et al. (2012). "Soldiers' Perceptions of Resilience Training and Postdeployment Adjustment: Validation of a Measure of Resilience Training Content and Training Process." Psychological Services (in press).

    "Group randomized trials of a resilience training program (formerly Battlemind training) demonstrated effectiveness of the program in reducing postdeployment adjustment problems among military personnel. These results are promising, but program evaluation is a dynamic, multifaceted task, and many questions remain. This article is designed to address one component of resilience training program evaluation: soldiers' perceptions of the training. Specifically, a self-report measure assessing attitudes and satisfaction in domains theorized to be important to resilience training was developed. This measure was administered to 782 soldiers who participated in a 1-hr resilience training session at 4-months postdeployment. Several mental health outcomes (e.g., alcohol problems, posttraumatic stress symptoms, physical health symptoms, unit morale) were assessed before training and 6 months later.... Analyses identified two factors reflecting attitudes toward Training Content and Training Process. The factors demonstrated good internal consistency, and both correlated with overall training satisfaction and mental health-related attitudes. In addition, both factors predicted significant positive change in a set of mental health outcomes at 6-month follow-up."

  25. Fourie, C. L. and L. C. Theron (2012). "Resilience in the face of fragile X syndrome." Qualitative Health Research 22(10): 1355-1368.

    "We explored the resilience of 'Lucy,' a spirited 16-year-old North American, using informal interviews with her, formal interviews with significant adults in her life, and observations (visual and anecdotal) over 20 months. In reporting the information-rich case of Lucy, well supported by her ecology to rise above full-mutation FXS, we encourage a positive perspective of living with FXS. Although we recognize the limitations of a single case study, our findings offer tentative, process-oriented insights into resilience in contexts of genetic disability, previously unreported in conjunction with FXS. We concluded that the processes informing Lucy's resilience were partly her responsibility and partly her social ecology's, and comprised intrapersonal agency, unconditional positive acceptance and belonging, and support toward mastery."

  26. Froehlich-Gildhoff, K. and M. Roennau-Boese (2012). "Prevention of exclusion: The promotion of resilience in early childhood institutions in disadvantaged areas." Journal of Public Health 20(2): 131-139.

    "The children's results show, compared with the control group and over time, positive effects on self-esteem, behavioural stability and cognitive development of children who participated in the project (treatment group). The parents appreciated the combination of group offers (parental courses) and the possibility of a one-to-one advisory service (counselling)—those parents who did not attend the parental courses could be addressed in counselling sessions. A change in perspective regarding the children's resources and strengths resulted in both early-childhood teachers and parents developing a more positive perception of the children and of their own skills. Conclusion: The project shows the positive results of a multidimensional setting approach in prevention. Beside the measurable results, it shows some important general experiences that promote the development of children: early-childhood institutions have the opportunity of reaching parents successfully, to contact and motivate them to co-operate. The project shows as well which key roles professional staff can play in early-childhood institutions, schools and therapy, if they approach children in a manner that enables them to reflect on their experiences and integrate these experiences into their self-image."

  27. Galatzer-Levy, I. R., C. L. Burton, et al. (2012). "Coping flexibility, potentially traumatic life events, and resilience: A prospective study of college student adjustment." Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 31(6): 542-567.

    "Trajectories were not influenced by exposure to a PTE (potentially traumatic events) and...the common outcome was little or no distress over the four years of college. Flexible coping was strongly associated with a resilient outcome."

  28. García, G. M. and J. C. A. Calvo (2012). "Emotional exhaustion of nursing staff: Influence of emotional annoyance and resilience." International Nursing Review 59(1): 101-107.

    "Emotional annoyance and resilience contribute to a better understanding of emotional exhaustion levels of nursing staff. There was a significant association between emotional annoyance and emotional exhaustion..., while resilience appeared to be protective against emotional exhaustion.... A more complete explanation and understanding of emotional exhaustion in nursing is achieved when emotional annoyance and resilience is measured in addition elements of burnout, which include professional efficiency and cynicism."

  29. Gayton, S. D. and G. P. Lovell (2012). "Resilience in ambulance service paramedics and its relationships with well-being and general health." Traumatology 18(1): 58-64.

    "Experienced paramedics displayed significantly higher levels of resilience than paramedical students.... Resilience was significantly correlated with general health and well-being. Findings strengthen calls advocating for the increase of resilience interventions for paramedics and paramedical students to protect their well-being."

  30. Gonzales, G., K. M. Chronister, et al. (2012). "Experiencing parental violence: A qualitative examination of adult men's resilience." Psychology of Violence 2(1): 90-103.

    "Participants identified factors vital to their resilient development such as having key safe relationships with caring adults and a safe haven outside of the home, using positive coping strategies like extracurricular activities and sports, and gaining professional and personal achievements.... Clinicians and researchers should implement and evaluate interventions that leverage broader social supports, use extracurricular activities, focus on developing safe spaces, and redefine male gender role norms. Researchers also should expand assessment of resilience to include more diverse coping strategies."

  31. Gooding, P. A., A. Hurst, et al. (2012). "Psychological resilience in young and older adults." International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 27(3): 262-270.

    "The older adults were the more resilient group especially with respect to emotional regulation ability and problem solving. The young ones had more resilience related to social support. Poor perceptions of general health and low energy levels predicted low levels of resilience regardless of age. Low hopelessness scores also predicted greater resilience in both groups. Experiencing higher levels of mental illness and physical dysfunction predicted high resilience scores especially for the social support resilience scale in the older adults. The negative effects of depression on resilience related to emotional regulation were countered by low hopelessness but only in the young adults."

  32. Goodkind, J. R., J. M. Hess, et al. (2012). ""We're Still in a Struggle": Diné resilience, survival, historical trauma, and healing." Qualitative Health Research 22(8): 1019-1036.

    "As part of a community/university collaborative effort to promote the mental health and well-being of Diné (Navajo) youth, we explored the relevance of addressing historical trauma and current structural stressors, and of building on individual and community strengths through healing and social transformation at multiple levels. Qualitative analyses of 74 ethnographic interviews with 37 Diné youth, parents, and grandparents suggested that a focus on historical trauma as a conceptual frame for behavioral health inequities, understood within the context of resilience and survival, is appropriate. Our findings also highlight the salience of current stressors such as poverty and violence exposure. We explore the fit of an historical trauma healing framework and present implications for intervention and transformation through revitalization of traditional knowledge, culturally based healing practices, intergenerational education, and social change strategies designed to eliminate social inequities."

  33. Greeff, A. and C. Thiel (2012). "Resilience in families of husbands with prostate cancer." Educational Gerontology 38(3): 179-189.

    "Twenty-one husbands and their spouses independently completed six questionnaires and a biographical questionnaire, and they answered an open-ended question. The qualitative findings revealed the importance of intrafamilial support, spiritual/religious beliefs, and professional support and knowledge, while the quantitative results indicated that family adaptation was fostered by the family's internal strengths and durability, affirmative communication, and the experience of social support."

  34. Greeff, A. P. and J. Lawrence (2012). "Indications of resilience factors in families who have lost a home in a shack fire." Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology 22(3): 210-224.

    "Qualitative data were obtained through responses to an open-ended question, and quantitative data were obtained through the completion of questionnaires by an adult representative of each of the 38 African families that were identified through convenience sampling.... The results show that supportive communication, a sense of being in control and having internal strengths and dependability, while working together as a family, are vital to the resilience of the families that took part in this study. Furthermore, material support from the municipality and extended family, shelter provided by members of the extended family, and financial support from the extended family were also indicated as essential in overcoming the crisis and being resilient."

  35. Greeff, A. P., A. Vansteenwegen, et al. (2012). "Resilience in families living with a child with a physical disability." Rehabil Nurs 37(3): 97-104.

    "The following resources and qualities were identified by both the parents and the children: family hardiness, evaluation of a stressful situation as a challenge, positive redefinition of a stressful situation, the educational level of the parent, and the experience of social support."

  36. Greene, R. R., S. Hantman, et al. (2012). "Holocaust survivors: three waves of resilience research." J Evid Based Soc Work 9(5): 481-497.

    "About 65% of the survivors scored on the high side for resilience traits. Of the survivors, 78% engaged in processes considered resilient and felt they were transcendent or had engaged in behaviors that help them grow and change over the years since the Holocaust, including leaving a legacy and contributing to the community."

  37. Hammermeister, J., M. A. Pickering, et al. (2012). "The relationship between sport related psychological skills and indicators of PTSD among Stryker Brigade soldiers: The mediating effects of perceived psychological resilience." Journal of Sport Behavior 35(1): 40-60.

    "The sample was 351 Stryker Brigade soldiers who had at least one previous combat deployment. Results showed that perceived psychological resilience fully mediates the relationship between three sport-related psychological skill factors and indicators of PTSD. These results suggest that sport-related psychological skills may play a role in the development of perceived psychological resilience, which in turn, influences PTSD."

  38. Hourani, L., R. H. Bender, et al. (2012). "Longitudinal study of resilience and mental health in Marines leaving military service." J Affect Disord 139(2): 154-165.

    "Data were collected from longitudinal surveys of 475 active duty Marines attending a random sample of mandatory Transition Assistance Program workshops before leaving the military and responding to follow-up mail or web surveys an average of 6 months after returning to civilian life.... Results revealed distinct risk and protective factors for those meeting screening criteria for mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and PTSD) and functional impairment at follow-up. Primary risk factors included experiencing higher levels of pre-separation combat exposure; post-separation stress across multiple life domains; and experiencing multiple areas of pain post-separation. Protective factors include having higher scores on pre-separation resilience and perceived social support at follow-up indices."

  39. Howard, S. and B. M. Hughes (2012). "Benefit of social support for resilience-building is contingent on social context: examining cardiovascular adaptation to recurrent stress in women." Anxiety Stress Coping 25(4): 411-423.

    "Cardiovascular responses tended to habituate across time, with perceived social support associated with the degree of habituation, but only under certain contextual conditions; high perceived support was associated with effective habituation under control conditions only. This response pattern is consistent with the view that high perceived social support buffers against stress in healthful ways, but only in asocial contexts."

  40. Howell, K. H., L. E. Miller, et al. (2012). "Inconsistencies in mothers' and group therapists' evaluations of resilience in preschool children who live in households with intimate partner violence." Journal of Family Violence 27(6): 489-497.

    "Group therapists' ratings of resilience were negatively correlated with children's externalizing behavior problems. Findings indicated poor rater agreement between mothers and group therapists on some aspects of resilience. Evaluations differed based on demographic factors, with the most variability in resilience by child age. Given the lack of research on this topic and the common practice of only one informant supplying most of the data used in studies of child functioning, the current study provides unique information by comparing multiple reports across settings."

  41. Im, Y. J. and D. H. Kim (2012). "Factors associated with the resilience of school-aged children with atopic dermatitis." Journal of Clinical Nursing 21(1-2): 80-88.

    "There was no significant relationship between resilience and age, academic achievement, economic status, mother's age and education, parental rejection–restriction and permissiveness non-intervention variables. In multiple regression analysis, duration of illness...and relationships with friends...were identified as significant variables affecting resilience....  School-aged children with atopic dermatitis who reported a shorter duration of illness, lower severity score and better relationships with parents, friends and teachers showed a higher resilience score than their counterparts."

  42. Irvin, M. J. (2012). "Role of student engagement in the resilience of African American adolescents from low-income rural communities." Psychology in the Schools 49(2): 176-193.

    "Regression analyses indicated that youth with Troubled, Tough, and Disengaged profiles were at risk for difficulties in subsequent achievement and/or aggression. In addition, behavioral and psychological engagement had a main effect relation with achievement and/or aggression, indicating that engagement served a promotive role."

  43. Jain, S., S. L. Buka, et al. (2012). "Protective factors for youth exposed to violence: Role of developmental assets in building emotional resilience." Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 10(1): 107-129.

    "Positive peers and supportive relationships with parents and other adults had significant main effects. Positive peers and family support were particularly protective for witnesses and victims. Structured activities and collective efficacy influenced change in resilience differentially among ETV groups."

  44. Jang, H. and S. Choi (2012). "Increasing ego-resilience using clay with low SES (Social Economic Status) adolescents in group art therapy." The Arts in Psychotherapy 39(4): 245-250.

    "Clay-based group art therapy produced positive effects on the ego-resilience of low SES adolescents. These findings are attributed to the participants' successful experience of seeing clay becoming complete pottery through kiln firing and feeling the suppleness and plasticity of clay. The significance of this study lies in the finding that clay-based group art therapy produces positive effects on the adolescents' ego-resilience, a personal trait that helps with mental and emotional adaptation in a changing and conflicting environment."

  45. Jordan, L. P. and E. Graham (2012). "Resilience and well-being among children of migrant parents in South-East Asia." Child Development 83(5): 1672-1688.

    "While children of migrant parents, especially migrant mothers, are less likely to be happy compared to children in nonmigrant households, greater resilience in child well-being is associated to longer durations of maternal absence. There is no evidence for a direct parental migration effect on school enjoyment and performance. The analyses highlight the sensitivity of results to the dimension of child well-being measured and who makes the assessment."

  46. Karreman, A. and A. J. J. M. Vingerhoets (2012). "Attachment and well-being: The mediating role of emotion regulation and resilience." Personality and Individual Differences 53(7): 821-826.

    "Secure and dismissing attachment styles were found to be associated with higher well-being, while preoccupied attachment was the attachment style with the most adverse outcome. Fearful attachment was not directly related to well-being. Results of the multiple mediation model revealed unique relationships with emotion regulation and resilience for each attachment style, explaining connections with well-being. Secure attachment was associated with higher reappraisal and resilience, partly mediating the effect on well-being. Complete mediation was found for dismissing attachment via higher reappraisal and resilience, and for preoccupied attachment via lower reappraisal and resilience. Remarkably, fearful attachment had indirect positive effects on well-being through higher reappraisal and resilience. Suppression failed to function as a mediator between attachment and well-being."

  47. Kasen, S., P. Wickramaratne, et al. (2012). "Religiosity and resilience in persons at high risk for major depression." Psychological Medicine 42(3): 509-519.

    "Increased attendance was associated with significantly reduced odds for mood disorder (by 43%) and any psychiatric disorder (by 53%) in all offspring ; however, odds were significantly lower in offspring of non-depressed parents than in offspring of depressed parents. In analyses confined to offspring of depressed parents, those with high and those with average/low NLE exposure were compared: increased attendance was associated with significantly reduced odds for MDD, mood disorder and any psychiatric disorder (by 76, 69 and 64% respectively) and increased importance was associated with significantly reduced odds for mood disorder (by 74%) only in offspring of depressed parents with high NLE exposure. Moreover, those associations differed significantly between offspring of depressed parents with high NLE exposure and offspring of depressed parents with average/low NLE exposure.... Greater religiosity may contribute to development of resilience in certain high-risk individuals."

  48. Kimhi, S., S. Hantman, et al. (2012). "Elderly people coping with the aftermath of war: resilience versus vulnerability." Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 20(5): 391-401.

    "The results indicated 1) The elderly group reported significantly higher levels of stress symptoms and lower levels of PTR; 2) Females in the three age groups reported higher levels of stress symptoms and lower levels of PTR and individual resilience than males; 3) Individual and public resilience negatively predicted stress symptoms and positively predicted posttraumatic recovery across three age groups; and 4) Public resilience has a differential effect on stress symptoms in each of the three age groups but not on PTR.... Results question the division of older people into a vulnerable or inoculated group, indicating that the participants responded concurrently in a more vulnerable and a more resilient manner. Older people were characterized by higher levels of postwar stress symptoms, as well as a higher sense of coherence."

  49. Koinis-Mitchell, D., E. L. McQuaid, et al. (2012). "Identifying individual, cultural and asthma-related risk and protective factors associated with resilient asthma outcomes in urban children and families." Journal of Pediatric Psychology 37(4): 425-437.

    "Protective processes functioned differently by ethnic group. For example, Latino families exhibited higher levels of family connectedness, and this was associated with lower levels of functional limitation due to asthma, in the context of risks."

  50. Kurtz, S. P., M. E. Buttram, et al. (2012). "Resilience, syndemic factors, and serosorting behaviors among HIV-positive and HIV-negative substance-using MSM." AIDS Education and Prevention 24(3): 193-205.

    "For HIV-positive men, positive coping behaviors (P - .015) and coping self-efficacy (P = .014) predicted higher odds, and cognitive escape behaviors (P = .003) lower odds, of serosorting. For HIV negative men, social engagement (P = .03) and coping self-efficacy (P = .01) predicted higher odds, and severe mental distress (P = .001), victimization history (P = .007) and cognitive escape behaviors (P = .006) lower odds, of serosorting. HIV-negative serosorters reported lower perceptions of risk for infection than non-serosorters (P < .000). Although high risk HIV-negative men may perceive serosorting to be effective, their high rates of UAI and partner change render this an ineffective risk reduction approach."

  51. Larkin, H., B. A. Beckos, et al. (2012). "Mobilizing Resilience and Recovery in Response to Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE): A Restorative Integral Support (RIS) Case Study." J Prev Interv Community 40(4): 335-346.

    "The Restorative Integral Support (RIS) model is a comprehensive, whole person approach to addressing adversity and trauma.... The current empirical case study presents the Committee on the Shelterless (COTS), in Petaluma, CA, as an example of one social service agency employing RIS to break cycles of homelessness. By applying RIS, research-based programming is offered within a culture of recovery that mobilizes resilience through social affiliations."

  52. Liu, Y., Z.-H. Wang, et al. (2012). "Affective mediators of the influence of neuroticism and resilience on life satisfaction." Personality and Individual Differences 52(7): 833-838.

    "Positive affect partially mediated the association between neuroticism and life satisfaction. Furthermore, the association between resilience and life satisfaction was fully mediated by positive affect. These findings highlight the mediational role of positive rather than negative affect in the relationships between neuroticism, resilience and life satisfaction."

  53. Longenecker, R., T. Zink, et al. (2012). "Teaching and learning resilience: building adaptive capacity for rural practice. A report and subsequent analysis of a workshop conducted at the Rural Medical Educators Conference, Savannah, Georgia, May 18, 2010." J Rural Health 28(2): 122-127.

    "Data highlight the importance of (1) embracing hardship as an opportunity for growth, (2) viewing resilience as both an individual and community property, (3) pursuing adaptability more than hardiness, and (4) setting a lifelong pattern of learning this competency in practice."

  54. Lou, V. W. and J. W. Ng (2012). "Chinese older adults' resilience to the loneliness of living alone: A qualitative study." Aging Ment Health 16(8): 1039-1046.

    "The primary theme of resilience was found in cognitive competence, self and personality, and social relations. The secondary theme of resilience showed a family-oriented, relationship-focused resilience coping, which is in line with Chinese culture.... This study demonstrated that family-oriented and relationship-focused resilience at the cognitive, self and personality, and social relations levels played significant roles in helping the Chinese older adults overcome their high risk of loneliness."

  55. Luthar, S. S. and S. H. Barkin (2012). "Are affluent youth truly "at risk"? Vulnerability and resilience across three diverse samples." Development and Psychopathology 24(2): 429-449.

    "Building upon prior findings of elevated problems among East Coast suburban youth through the 11th grade, this study establishes disproportionately high incidence of maladjustment across three disparate samples: East Coast Suburban youth at the end of their senior year in high school, and 11th and 12th graders in (a) a Northwest suburb and (b) an East Coast city. Both East Coast samples showed pronounced elevations in substance use, whereas the Northwest suburban sample showed marked vulnerability in serious internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Across all samples, parents' low perceived...containment for substance use...(lax repercussions on discovering use) was a major vulnerability factor, followed by parents' knowledge of their teens' activities. Overall, adolescents' symptom levels were more strongly related to their relationships with mothers than with fathers. An exception was boys' apparent vulnerability to fathers', but not mothers', perceived depressive symptoms. As with affluent eighth graders, we found that 'overscheduling' in extracurriculars is not a critical vulnerability factor among these high school students. Finally, youth reports suggested that most affluent parents do not indiscriminately bail their children out of all problem situations (although a small subset, apparently, do)."

  56. Maier, M. F., V. E. Vitiello, et al. (2012). "A multilevel model of child- and classroom-level psychosocial factors that support language and literacy resilience of children in Head Start." Early Childhood Research Quarterly 27(1): 104-114.

    "Child-level psychosocial strengths predicted initial levels of language and literacy, and classroom organization predicted growth."

  57. Malindi, M. J. and N. Machenjedze (2012). "The role of school engagement in strengthening resilience among male street children." South African Journal of Psychology 42(1): 71-81.

    "School engagement strengthened resilience among the participants by promoting pro-social change, future orientation, opportunities for support, learning of basic skills and restoration of childhood."

  58. Maulding, W. S., G. B. Peters, et al. (2012). "Emotional intelligence and resilience as predictors of leadership in school administrators." Journal of Leadership Studies 5(4): 20-29.

    "As evidenced by the results, there is a strong correlation between the factors of emotional intelligence and resilience and leadership success."

  59. McCabe, M. P. and E. J. O'Connor (2012). "Why are some people with neurological illness more resilient than others?" Psychology, Health & Medicine 17(1): 17-34.

    "Participants who demonstrated good adjustment were more likely to draw on social support to provide them with the resources to deal with the illness. In contrast, those who evidenced poor adjustment were more likely to draw on external supports to complete tasks for them."

  60. Mealer, M., J. Jones, et al. (2012). "A qualitative study of resilience and posttraumatic stress disorder in United States ICU nurses." Intensive Care Med 38(9): 1445-1451.

    "Highly resilient nurses identified spirituality, a supportive social network, optimism, and having a resilient role model as characteristics used to cope with stress in their work environment. ICU nurses with a diagnosis of PTSD possessed several unhealthy characteristics including a poor social network, lack of identification with a role model, disruptive thoughts, regret, and lost optimism."

  61. Mealer, M., J. Jones, et al. (2012). "The presence of resilience is associated with a healthier psychological profile in intensive care unit (ICU) nurses: Results of a national survey." International Journal of Nursing Studies 49(3): 292-299.

    "Twenty-two percent of the intensive care unit nurses were categorized as being highly resilient. The presence of high resilience in these nurses was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, symptoms of anxiety or depression, and burnout syndrome (<0.001 for all comparisons). In independent multivariable analyses adjusting for five potential confounding variables, the presence of resilience was independently associated with a lower prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder... and a lower prevalence of burnout syndrome."

  62. Melvin, K. C., D. Gross, et al. (2012). "Couple functioning and post-traumatic stress symptoms in US army couples: The role of resilience." Research in Nursing & Health 35(2): 164-177.

    "Higher levels of PTSS were associated with lower couple functioning and resilience. Individuals with high resilience scores reported higher couple functioning scores, regardless of PTSS..."

  63. Mertens, V. C., H. Bosma, et al. (2012). "Good friends, high income or resilience? What matters most for elderly patients?" Eur J Public Health 22(5): 666-671.

    "A high level of mastery is significantly associated with physical, mental and social functioning in the total study population, as well as in subgroups of patients with COPD or diabetes. This relationship remained significant after controlling for confounding factors such as gender, age, educational level and the other remaining resources. In diabetes patients, high levels of social support and income also contributed significantly to successful social functioning."

  64. Min, J.-A., N.-B. Lee, et al. (2012). "Low trait anxiety, high resilience, and their interaction as possible predictors for treatment response in patients with depression." Journal of Affective Disorders 137(1-3): 61-69.

    "Among demographic and clinical variables, treatment response was associated with increased age, longer treatment duration, higher resilience, and lower trait anxiety. In logistic regression analysis, resilience, trait anxiety, and their interaction significantly predicted treatment response after adjusting for age and treatment duration. Interaction between resilience and trait anxiety remained significant in the final model. Examining the interaction between the two, patients with low trait anxiety were only significantly affected by the level of resilience in response rate.... Low trait anxiety, high resilience, and their interaction might contribute to better treatment response in depressed patients."

  65. Min, J. A., Y. E. Jung, et al. (2012). "Characteristics associated with low resilience in patients with depression and/or anxiety disorders." Qual Life Res.

    "In the final regression model, low spirituality was revealed as a leading predictor of lower-resilience groups. Additionally, low purpose in life and less frequent exercise were associated with the low- and medium-resilience groups, respectively. Severe trait anxiety characterized the low- and medium-resilience groups, although it was not included in the final model."

  66. Mukherjee, S., S. Kim, et al. (2012). "Genetic architecture of resilience of executive functioning." Brain Imaging Behav.

    "Executive functioning resilience was highly heritable (H(2) = 0.76; S.E. = 0.44). rs3748348 on chromosome 14 in the region of RNASE13 was associated with executive functioning resilience (p-value = 4.31 x 10(-7)). rs3748348 is in strong linkage disequilibrium (D' of 1.00 and 0.96) with SNPs that map to TPPP2, a member of the alpha-synuclein family of proteins. We identified nominally significant associations between rs3748348 and expression levels of three genes (FLJ10357, RNASE2, and NDRG2). The strongest association was for FLJ10357 in cortex, which also had the most significant difference in expression between AD and non-AD brains, with greater expression in cortex of decedents with AD (p-value = 7 x 10(-7))."

  67. Negi, S. K. and R. L. Zinta (2012). "Psychological resilience in socially disadvantaged fraternal polyandrous people of kinnaur." Indian Journal of Community Psychology 8(1): 118-133.

    "Polyandrous people reported poor resilience compared to their monogamous counterpart. Beside this the scheduled caste polyandrous people reported very poor psychological resilience and life style than to their tribal counterpart. Further, the females of the scheduled caste polyandrous in particular and the tribal non-scheduled caste in general reported poor psychological resilience and showed their helplessness in bouncing back the stressors."

  68. O'Hara, R., P. Marcus, et al. (2012). "5-HTTLPR short allele, resilience, and successful aging in older adults." Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 20(5): 452-456.

    "There was no significant association between the 5-HTTLPR s allele and resilience. S allele carriers had worse cognition and self-report ratings of successful aging. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the impact of the 5-HTTLPR s allele on stress-related outcomes may attenuate with older age. However, s allele status appears to be a biomarker of poorer self-rated successful aging, and cognitive performance in older adults."

  69. Orton, L., J. Griffiths, et al. (2012). "Resilience among asylum seekers living with HIV." BMC Public Health 12(1): 926.

    "There were three main stressors that threatened participants' resilience. First, migration caused them to leave behind many resources (including social support). Second, stigmatising attitudes led their HIV diagnosis to be a taboo subject furthering their isolation. Third, they found themselves trapped in the asylum system, unable to influence the outcome of their case and reliant on HIV treatment to stay alive. Participants were, however, very resourceful in dealing with these experiences. Resilience processes included: staying busy, drawing on personal faith, and the support received through HIV care providers and voluntary organisations. Even so, their isolated existence meant participants had limited access to social resources, and their treatment in the asylum system had a profound impact on perceived health and wellbeing."

  70. Palgi, Y., M. Ben-Ezra, et al. (2012). "Vulnerability and resilience in a group intervention with hospital personnel during exposure to extreme and prolonged war stress." Prehosp Disaster Med 27(1): 103-108.

    "All 13 soldiers in the unit studied participated in seven group therapy intervention sessions. It was hypothesized that shifting the focus of therapeutic intervention from the scenes of the events to the personal and professional narratives of preparing for the event would change the content of the soldiers' narratives. It was believed that subtracting the number of positive statements from the number of negative statements would yield increasingly higher 'resilience scores' during and after the war. It also was believed that such a change would be reflected in reduction of post-traumatic symptoms. As expected, the participants showed a decrease in vulnerability and an increase in resilience contents, as well as a decrease in traumatic symptoms during and after the war. These findings may reflect the effects of the ceasefire, the mutually supportive attitude of the participants, and the therapeutic interventions."

  71. Peng, L., J. Zhang, et al. (2012). "Negative life events and mental health of Chinese medical students: The effect of resilience, personality and social support." Psychiatry Research 196(1): 138-141.

    "Mental health problems had a positive correlation with negative life events and neuroticism. On the other hand, mental health problems had a negative correlation with social support, extraversion, and resilience. Regression analysis showed that resilience moderated negative life events and mental health problems."

  72. Perna, L., A. Mielck, et al. (2012). "Socioeconomic position, resilience, and health behaviour among elderly people." International Journal of Public Health 57(2): 341-349.

    "Resilient people were more likely to consume ≥5 servings of fruit and vegetables a day and to perform high/moderate physical activity as compared to non-resilient people (ORs ranging from 1.5 to 2.2), irrespective of socioeconomic position."

  73. Phipps, S., C. Peasant, et al. (2012). "Resilience in children undergoing stem cell transplantation: results of a complementary intervention trial." Pediatrics 129(3): e762-770.

    "Across the sample, significant improvements were seen on all outcomes from admission to week+24. Surprisingly, patients who had SCT reported low levels of adjustment difficulties at admission, and improved to normative or better than average levels of adjustment and HRQL at week+24. Benefit finding was high at admission and increased at week+24; however, there were no statistically significant differences between intervention arms for any of the measures."

  74. Pietrzak, R. H., M. Tracy, et al. (2012). "Resilience in the face of disaster: Prevalence and longitudinal course of mental disorders following Hurricane Ike." PLoS ONE 7(6).

    "Prevalence of psychiatric disorders declined rapidly over time, suggesting that the vast majority of individuals exposed to this natural disaster 'bounced back' and were resilient to long-term mental health consequences of this large-scale traumatic event."

  75. Pipe, T. B., V. L. Buchda, et al. (2012). "Building personal and professional resources of resilience and agility in the healthcare workplace." Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress 28(1): 11-22.

    "Personal and organizational indicators of stress decreased in the expected directions in both groups over the time intervals. The majority of POQA-R categories were statistically significantly improved in the oncology staff, and many of the categories were statistically significantly improved in the leadership group. The findings from this project demonstrate that stress and its symptoms are problematic issues for hospital and ambulatory clinic staff as evidenced by baseline measures of distress. Further, a workplace intervention was feasible and effective in promoting positive strategies for coping and enhancing well-being, personally and organizationally."

  76. Regev, R. and M. F. Ehrenberg (2012). "A pilot study of a support group for children in divorcing families: Aiding community program development and marking pathways to resilience." Journal of Divorce & Remarriage 53(3): 220-230.

    "Results demonstrate a significant increase in children's perceptions of their family situation as 'normal.' Better coping ability, fewer feelings of self-blame, and feeling less triangulated by parents was also reported postprogram, although these results were not statistically significant. Parents reported the intervention to be effective. Initial evidence for the effectiveness of the program was demonstrated by balancing community program goals, using children's and parents' perspectives, and considering clinical versus statistical significance."

  77. Scali, J., C. Gandubert, et al. (2012). "Measuring resilience in adult women using the 10-items Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Role of trauma exposure and anxiety disorders." PLoS ONE 7(6).

    "Self-evaluation of resilience is influenced by both current anxiety disorder and trauma history. The independent positive association between resilience and trauma exposure may indicate a 'vaccination' effect."

  78. Schrier, M., D. Amital, et al. (2012). "Association of fibromyalgia characteristics in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer and the protective role of resilience." Rheumatol Int 32(10): 3017-3023.

    " Cancer patients often complain about weakness, fatigue, and pain. The aim of this study was to assess the features of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) characteristics in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer.... The prevalence of chronic pain was higher in the study group. Statistically significant differences were also found between the group regarding pain, fatigue, and functional measures. The prevalence of depressive or anxious mood, measured by the Hamilton questionnaires, was strongly related to FMS characteristics reflected by FIQ scores (r = 0.79 between FIQ and the Hamilton Depression Index and r = 0.75 between FIQ and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale). The sense of coherence measure for these patients demonstrated an inverse correlation with pain, fatigue, and functional capability. Women with breast cancer tend to develop chronic widespread pain syndromes more often than do healthy women."

  79. Segovia, F., J. L. Moore, et al. (2012). "Optimism predicts resilience in repatriated prisoners of war: A 37-year longitudinal study." Journal of Traumatic Stress 25(3): 330-336.

    "When all variables were examined continuously and categorically, dispositional optimism was the strongest variable, accounting for 17%, continuously, and 14%, categorically."

  80. Seok, J. H., K. U. Lee, et al. (2012). "Impact of early-life stress and resilience on patients with major depressive disorder." Yonsei Med J 53(6): 1093-1098.

    "Among resilience factors, self-confidence and self-control may ameliorate depressive symptoms in MDD. ELS, including inter-parental violence, physical abuse and emotional abuse, might be a risk factor for developing depression."

  81. Shiner, R. L. and A. S. Masten (2012). "Childhood personality as a harbinger of competence and resilience in adulthood." Development and Psychopathology 24(2): 507-528.

    "Regressions showed significant main effects of childhood personality predicting adult outcomes, controlling for adversity, with few interaction effects. In person-focused analyses, the resilient group in EA and YA (high competence, high adversity) showed higher childhood conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness and lower neuroticism than the maladaptive group (low competence, high adversity). The competent (high competence, low adversity) and resilient groups showed similar childhood traits. Turnaround cases, who changed from the maladaptive group in EA to the resilient group in YA, exhibited higher childhood conscientiousness than persistently maladaptive peers. Findings suggest that children on pathways to success in adulthood, whether facing low or high adversity, have capacities for emotion regulation, empathy and connection, dedication to schoolwork, and mastery and exploration."

  82. Skrove, M., P. Romundstad, et al. (2012). "Resilience, lifestyle and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescence: the Young-HUNT study." Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol.

    "Symptoms of anxiety and depression were frequent in adolescents and were associated with unhealthy lifestyle factors as substance use and low physical activity. Resilience characteristics seemed to protect against symptoms and markedly influenced the associations between lifestyle factors and symptoms of anxiety and depression. The importance of family and other supportive relationships should be emphasized in treatment and prevention of anxiety and depression in adolescence."

  83. Smith, C. A., A. Park, et al. (2012). "Long-Term Outcomes of Young Adults Exposed to Maltreatment: The Role of Educational Experiences in Promoting Resilience to Crime and Violence in Early Adulthood." J Interpers Violence.

    "Although maltreatment was significantly predictive of criminal and violent behaviors, it only was weakly associated with educational experiences. The impact of maltreatment on arrest was weakly mediated (reduced) by educational GPA and by high school graduation. The additive index also mediated the impact of maltreatment on crime and violence. Maltreatment's impact on partner violence was also weakly mediated by school GPA. Interaction terms were used to test for moderation: only one significant effect was found: school GPA protects maltreated youth from perpetration of partner violence as young adults."

  84. Songprakun, W. and T. V. McCann (2012). "Effectiveness of a self-help manual on the promotion of resilience in individuals with depression in Thailand: A randomised controlled trial." BMC Psychiatry 12.

    "The findings provide preliminary evidence supporting the use of bibliotherapy for increasing resilience in people with moderate depression in a Thai context. Bibliotherapy is straightforward to use, and an easily accessible addition to the standard approach to promoting recovery."

  85. Sosa, T. (2012). "Showing up, remaining engaged, and partaking as students: Resilience among students of Mexican descent." Journal of Latinos and Education 11(1): 32-46.

    "Through an examination of students' interview responses, a case is made that students' ability to engage in school and figure out everyday ways to partake as students are signs of resilience. This work suggests the need to shift from a focus on single, specific stressful situations or experiences to a more accurate and less essentialized understanding of both constraints and capabilities around student engagement and well-being."

  86. Storch, E. A., J. E. Morgan, et al. (2012). "Psychosocial treatment improved resilience and reduce impairment in youth with tics: An intervention case series of eight youth." Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy 26(1): 57-70.

    "We report an intervention case series of eight youth (ages 8–16 years) supporting the initial efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral therapy program entitled "Living with Tics" that promotes coping and resiliency among youth with tics.... On average, participants exhibited meaningful reductions in tic-related impairment, anxiety, and overall tic severity as well as improvements in self-concept and quality of life."

  87. Stumblingbear-Riddle, G. and J. S. C. Romans (2012). "Resilience among urban America Indian adolescents: Exploration into the role of culture, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and social support." American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research 19(2): 1-19.

    "Thirty-three percent of the variance in resilience was accounted for by enculturation, self-esteem, and social support, while 34% of the variance in resilience was contributed by enculturation, subjective well-being, and social support. However, social support from friends remained the strongest predictor."

  88. Sweet, S. and P. Moen (2012). "Dual earners preparing for job loss: Agency, linked lives, and resilience." Work and Occupations 39(1): 35-70.

    "Personal and social resources predict preparation: those displaced workers who prepared had higher energy and higher incomes prior to job loss and also worked for employers who provided advance notification. Couples' egalitarian career strategies are associated with lower levels of preparation as well as limited options in the face of displacement. Less preparation is associated with less favorable career adjustments following job loss as well as more severe health and emotional challenges."

  89. Taylor, H. and H. Reyes (2012). "Self-efficacy and resilience in baccalaureate nursing students." Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh 9(1): Article 2.

    "No statistically significant differences were found in perceived self-efficacy or resilience total scores between early semester and late semester measurements. Significant differences were found on the Resilience Scale subscales of Perseverence and Existential Aloneness. Test scores were weakly correlated with resilience and self-efficacy scores."

  90. Terracciano, A., D. Iacono, et al. (2012). "Personality and resilience to alzheimer's disease neuropathology: A prospective autopsy study." Neurobiology of Aging (in press).

    "Individuals with higher baseline scores on vulnerability to stress, anxiety, and depression (neuroticism: odds ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–3.5), or lower scores on order and competence (conscientiousness: odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2–0.9) were less likely to remain asymptomatic in the presence of AD neuropathology. Neuroticism (r = 0.26), low agreeableness (r = −0.34), and some facets were also significantly associated with advanced stages of neurofibrillary tangles, but the associations between personality traits and risk of clinical dementia were mostly unchanged by controlling for the extent of neurofibrillary tangles and AB neuritic plaques. In sum, a resilient personality profile is associated with lower risk or delay of clinical dementia even in persons with AD neuropathology."

  91. Teti, M., A. E. Martin, et al. (2012). ""I'm a keep rising. I'm a keep going forward, regardless": Exploring Black men's resilience amid sociostructural challenges and stressors." Qualitative Health Research 22(4): 524-533.

    "Most men were resilient despite these challenges, however, and described five main forms of resilience: (a) perseverance; (b) a commitment to learning from hardship; (c) reflecting and refocusing to address difficulties; (d) creating a supportive environment; and (e) drawing support from religion/spirituality. Analysis of men's challenge and resilience narratives revealed the need to understand and promote low-income, urban, Black men's resilience via a broader ecosocial perspective which acknowledges the importance of social and community-level protective factors to support individual men's efforts to survive and thrive amid their adversities."

  92. Thomas, J., B. A. Jack, et al. (2012). "Resilience to care: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature concerning the experiences of student nurses in adult hospital settings in the UK." Nurse Educ Today 32(6): 657-664.

    "Approximately 40 qualitative data themes were identified and were the subject of a meta-synthesis. Five cross-cutting synthesised data themes were identified including: pre-placement anticipation, the realities of the clinical environment, clinical learning and becoming a nurse. Stress and coping was a concurrent topic area and related to all the synthesised themes.... The findings give new insights into the clinical experiences of student nurses of which the stress of learning in clinical environments and the development of emotional resilience is a focal issue. Whilst the majority of students in the UK experience nurturing, caring clinical environments and positive staff relationships, however, some do not. Reports of negative student nurse clinical experiences are shown in this review to have endured through time. Nurse educators should be alert to the possibility that some students may have very negative clinical experiences. The consequences such negative experiences will affect such things as increases to student attrition and the help perpetuate the cycle of negative clinical learning experiences occurring in the future."

  93. Tomás, J. M., P. Sancho, et al. (2012). "Resilience and coping as predictors of general well-being in the elderly: A structural equation modeling approach." Aging & Mental Health 16(3): 317-326.

    "The sample consisted of 225 non-institutionalized elderly people living in the city of Valencia (Spain). The three constructs measured were: well-being, resilient coping, and coping strategies.... Due to parsimony reasons, the model retained is that with a single predictor of well-being: resilient coping.... A latent variable measuring resilient coping is able to predict a significant and large part of the variance in well-being, without the need of including coping strategies."

  94. Treyvaud, K., T. E. Inder, et al. (2012). "Can the home environment promote resilience for children born very preterm in the context of social and medical risk?" Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 112(3): 326-337.

    "A more optimal home environment was associated with better cognitive and social– emotional development after adjusting for social risk, WMA, and LOS. Neonatal cerebral WMA [white matter abnormality] moderated the relationship between the home environment and dysregulation problems only, such that the home environment had less effect on dysregulation for children with mild or moderate to severe WMA."

  95. Tsai, J., I. Harpaz-Rotem, et al. (2012). "The role of coping, resilience, and social support in mediating the relation between PTSD and social functioning in veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan." Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes 75(2): 135-149.

    "The 86 (52%) veterans who screened positive for PTSD reported greater difficulties in their relationships with romantic partners, less cohesion in their families, less social support, poorer social functioning, and lower life satisfaction compared to other treatment-seeking veterans. Less social support from the community, excessive worry, decreased acceptance of change, and lower availability of secure relationships mediated the association between PTSD and poor social functioning. The relation between PTSD and lower partner satisfaction was mediated by greater cognitive social avoidance and lower availability of secure relationships."

  96. Waaktaar, T. and S. Torgersen (2012). "Genetic and environmental causes of variation in trait resilience in young people." Behavior Genetics 42(3): 366-377.

    " The aim of this multi-informant twin study was to determine the relative role of genetic and environmental factors in explaining variation in trait resilience in adolescents....Variance in trait resilience was best represented in an ADE common pathways model with sex limitation. Variance in the latent psychometric resilience factor was largely explained by additive genetic factors (77% in boys, 70% in girls), with the remaining variance (23 and 30%) attributable to non-shared environmental factors. Additive genetic sources explained more than 50% of the informant specific variation in mothers and fathers scores. In twins, additive and non-additive genetic factors together explained 40% and non-shared environmental factor the remaining 60% of variation. In the mothers' scores, the additive genetic effect was larger for boys than for girls. The non-additive genetic factor found in the twins' self ratings was larger in boys than in girls. The remaining sex differences in the specific factors were small. Trait resilience is largely genetically determined."

  97. Wells, M., D. Avers, et al. (2012). "Resilience, physical performance measures, and self-perceived physical and mental health in older Catholic nuns." J Geriatr Phys Ther 35(3): 126-131.

    "The positive relationship between resilience and gait speed is an important finding of this study because it reinforces the connection between physical and emotional health."

  98. Werner, E. E. (2012). "Children and war: risk, resilience, and recovery." Dev Psychopathol 24(2): 553-558.

    "Especially vulnerable to long-term emotional distress were child soldiers, children who were raped, and children who had been forcibly displaced. In adulthood, war-traumatized children displayed significantly increased risks for a wide range of medical conditions, especially cardiovascular diseases. Among protective factors that moderated the impact of war-related adversities in children were a strong bond between the primary caregiver and the child, the social support of teachers and peers, and a shared sense of values."

  99. West, C., P. Buettner, et al. (2012). "Resilience in families with a member with chronic pain: a mixed methods study." J Clin Nurs.

    "The impact of pain on the family was high overall, but the perceived impact was greater for the person with pain. Resilience scores were above average for both the person with pain and other family members. However, the person with pain scored lower on the resilience scale than other members of the family. The families scored high for social support overall, while the person with pain perceived they had greater support than their family members."

  100. West, C., L. Stewart, et al. (2012). "The meaning of resilience to persons living with chronic pain: an interpretive qualitative inquiry." J Clin Nurs 21(9-10): 1284-1292.

    "The findings from this study revealed that while living with chronic pain is generally a negative experience, the participants also told positive stories around the following themes: (i) Recognising individual strength; (ii) Looking for the positives in life; (iii) Accepting the pain; and (iv) Learning to accept help. CONCLUSION: Chronic pain influences all aspects of life. Resilient individuals with chronic pain recognise the value of remaining positive, accepting help and learning to live with the pain."

  101. Williams, J. and D. Nelson-Gardell (2012). "Predicting resilience in sexually abused adolescents." Child Abuse Negl 36(1): 53-63.

    "School engagement, caregiver social support, hope and expectancy, caregiver education and SES predicted resilience. In line with the PPCT model, findings suggest that placing a greater emphasis on the contextual environment could improve support for adolescent resilience. Augmenting interventions that focus on individual change with those that address environmental factors may increase the benefits to adolescents affected by sexual abuse."

  102. Wooten, N. R. (2012). "Deployment cycle stressors and post-traumatic stress symptoms in army national guard women: the mediating effect of resilience." Soc Work Health Care 51(9): 828-849.

    "Hierarchical linear regression indicated that deployment and post-deployment stressors were positively associated, and resilience was negatively associated with PTSS. Resilience fully mediated the association between post-deployment stressors and PTSS."

  103. Wu, L. M., J. M. Sheen, et al. (2012). "Predictors of anxiety and resilience in adolescents undergoing cancer treatment." J Adv Nurs.

    "Over 20% of participants scored high on worry. The most commonly used coping strategy was cognitive coping, followed by problem-oriented coping and finally by defensive coping. There was a statistically significant correlation between defensive coping and level of worry. Resilience was positively correlated with cognitive coping and problem-oriented coping. The cognitive coping and defensive coping were found to predict anxiety and resilience significantly by a step-wise multiple regression analysis and accounted for 40.9% and 46.5% of total variance, respectively."

  104. Yates, T. M. and I. K. Grey (2012). "Adapting to aging out: profiles of risk and resilience among emancipated foster youth." Dev Psychopathol 24(2): 475-492.

    "Fit indices and conceptual interpretation converged on a four-profile solution. A subset of emancipated youth evidenced a maladaptive profile (16.5%; n = 27), which was characterized by low educational competence, low occupational competence, low civic engagement, problematic interpersonal relationships, low self-esteem, and high depressive symptoms. However, the largest group of emancipated youth exhibited a resilient profile in which they were faring reasonably well in all domains despite marked adversity (47%; n = 77). Two additional groups evidenced discordant adjustment patterns wherein they exhibited high levels of psychological competence despite behavioral difficulties (i.e., internally resilient; 30%; n = 49) or significant emotional difficulties despite manifest competence (i.e., externally resilient; 6.5%; n = 11)."


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